India’s First catastrophic Error: Failing to detail her territorial boundary claims in a consistent manner between 1950 and 1954 and issuing conflicting political maps (below):
As a result, the PRC was free to make territorial claims, especially in the Western Sector (below) and also secure the Aksai Chin area uncontested and without any military opposition.
India’s second catastrophic error: Initiating the ‘Forward Policy’ (below) under which logistically unsustainable and militarily indefensible forward military observation posts and pickets were set up (below):
And as a result of all this...
This then brings us to the present-day ground situation: