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Friday, April 15, 2016

DEFEXPO 2016 Show Report-2

Undersea Webs
A web of strategic projects is now taking firm shape as India enters into closer multilateral military cooperation relationships with Japan, Australia and the United States, as well as regional powers like Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Vietnam. Matters began taking on urgency in late September 2014, after US President Barack Obama and PM Modi have pledged to intensify cooperation in maritime security. Following this, on March 16, 2015 the defence ministers of the 10-member Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) at the end of the two-day 9th ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meeting in Langkawi, Malaysia, collectively stated that they wanted India to play a far bigger role in both the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) and the South China Sea.
In the near future, therefore, under the auspices of the US–India Defence Framework Agreement, foundational pacts like the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA), Communication Interoperability and Security Memorandum Agreement (CISMOA), and Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement for Geo-Spatial Cooperation (BECA), are likely to be inked by the two countries later this year. Concurrently, Japan can be expected to extend funding from the Japan International Cooperation Agency for the upgradation of naval air bases and construction of new ELINT/SIGINT stations along the Andaman and Nicobar chain of islands, which is made up of 572 islands (of which only 34 are presently inhabited), stretching around 470 miles north to south. But most importantly, preliminary planning has commenced on a Japan-financed project that calls for 1) laying of an undersea optical fibre cable from Chennai to Port Blair; and 2) the construction of an undersea network of seabed-based surveillance sensors stretching from the tip of Sumatra right up to Indira Point. Once completed, this network will be an integral part of the existing US-Japan ‘Fish Hook’ sound surveillance (SOSUS) network that will play a pivotal role in constantly monitoring all submarine patrols mounted by China’s PLA Navy (PLAN) in both the South China Sea and the IOR. This network will in turn be networked with the Indian Navy’s (IN) high-bandwidth National Command Control and Communications Intelligence network (NC3I), which has been set up under the IN’s National Maritime Domain Awareness (NMDA) project at a cost of Rs.1,003 crores. At the heart of the NC3I is the Gurgaon-based, Rs.453 crore Information Management and Analysis Centre (IMAC), whose systems integration software packages were supplied by Raytheon and CISCO. 
Oblique references to all these developments were made in the joint statement that was issued last month after the visiting US Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter held delegation-level talks with his Indian counterpart Manohar Parrikar. The joint statement spoke about: A) new opportunities to deepen cooperation in maritime security and maritime domain awareness; B) commencement of navy-to-navy discussions on submarine safety and anti-submarine warfare; and 3) enhancing on-going navy-to-navy discussions to cover submarine-related issues.
The US was always interested in Japanese and Indian locations for its SOSUS stations. Initially called Project Caesar, this involved running cables out on continental shelves and connecting them to hydrophones suspended above the sea bottom at optimum signal depths. An ‘experimental station’ was established at the north-western tip of Hokkaido in 1957, with the cable extending into the Soya (La Perouse) Strait. It monitored all Soviet submarine traffic going in and out of Vladivostok and Nakhodka in the Sea of Japan. Undersea surveillance systems and associated shore-based data collection stations code-named Barrier and Bronco were installed in Japan in the 1960s. Acoustic data collected at these sites was transmitted by US defence communications satellites to US Navy (USN) processing and analysis centres in the US. In the 1970s, a network between between Japan and the Korean Peninsula was commissioned. By 1980, three stations at Wakkanai (designated JAP-4), Tsushima (JAP-108) and the Ryukyu Islands (RYU-80) were operational in Japan, along with earlier stations built in the Tsushima Straits and the Okinawa area. The existence of old cables at Horonai Point in north-west Honshu, which during the Cold War led out to SOSUS arrays in the Sea of Japan, has been widely described by scuba divers. By the mid-1980s the SOSUS hydrophone arrays stretched from southern Japan to The Philippines, covering the approaches to China. After the collapse of the USSR and the decline of the submarine threat to the US in the early 1990s, the USN allowed its SOSUS systems in the north-west Pacific to atrophy, although some arrays were retained in working order so as to support civilian scientific research (such as tracking whales and monitoring undersea volcanic activity). According to a USN directive issued in August 1994, all seabed-based fixed-arrays in the Pacific were placed on ‘hot standby’; personnel would ‘not be routinely assigned to monitor fixed-array data’ unless that data was required for operational purposes, but in practice the probability of being able to reconstitute them to full operational status was ‘extremely low’.  
However, in the early 2000s, facing an increasing PLAN submarine force and more aggressive PLAN submarine patrols, the USN decided that it needed a new chain of fixed arrays designed primarily to monitor the movement of PLAN submarines between the East China Sea and South China Sea on the one hand, and between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean on the other. Thus was born the US-Japan ‘Fish Hook Undersea Defense Line’ in early 2005, stretching from Japan southwards to Southeast Asia, with key nodes at Okinawa, Guam and Taiwan. Beginning from near Kagoshima in the southwest part of Kyushu, it runs down the Osumi archipelago to Okinawa, then to Miyako-jima and Yonaguni in the southern part of the Ryukyu Islands, past Taiwan to the Balabac Islands in The Philippines, to Lomkok in the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago, across the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra, and from northern Sumatra to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Three major gaps—between Yonaguni and Suao in north-east Taiwan (120km), between Kaohsiung in south-western Taiwan and the Dongsha (Pratas) Islands (450km) where the East China Sea meets the South China Sea, and across the Bashi Channel (220km) between Hengchun at Taiwan’s southernmost tip and Luzon Island in The Philippines—were plugged. In addition, the USN installed a new SOSUS network, stretching from Sasebo down to Okinawa, in 2006, when the US cable-laying ship USNS Zeus operated together with oceanographic survey vessels and nuclear submarines in this area. In July 2013, Beijing claimed that the US and Japan had jointly established ‘very large underwater monitoring systems’ at the northern and southern ends of Taiwan. One of these stretched from Yonaguni to the Senkaku Islands (about 150km), while the other covered the Bashi Channel down to The Philippines. Thus, this US-Japan undersea trip-wire around the PLAN presently extends across the Tsushima Strait between Japan and the Korean Peninsula, and from Japan’s southern main island of Kyushu down past Taiwan to The Philippines. The curve of the hook stretches across the Java Sea from Kalimantan to Java, across the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra, and from the northern tip of Sumatra along the eastern side of India’s Andaman and Nicobar island chain. Real-time information-sharing between the US and Japan joins the undersea defence line-up, effectively drawing a tight arc around Southeast Asia, from the Andaman Sea to Japan.

China’s Undersea Trip-Wire
The PLAN’s seabed-based surveillance network, developed jointly by Ukraine and China since 1996, has been under installation along China's territorial waters since 2012, with work expected to be completed later this year. The seabed-based component of this network comprises arrays of hydrophones and magnetic anomaly detectors spaced along undersea cables laid at the axis of deep sound-channels roughly normal to the direction that the arrays are to listen. This capability is next paired with maritime reconnaissance/ASW aircraft assets to establish a multi-tier ASW network. The first naval bases to be covered by this network were the PLAN’s submarine bases in four sites: the Bohai shipyard at Huludao on the Bohai Sea where all nuclear-powered submarines are built; the North Sea Fleet’s Xiaopingdao naval refit base near Dalian where the SSBNs are fitted out for SLBM test-firings from the Bohai Sea across China into Delingha in the Qinghai desert and the desert of Lop Nor in Xinjiang; the North Sea Fleet’s base at Jianggezhuang (Laoshan) approximately 18km east of Qingdao in Shandong Province; and the South Sea Fleet’s bases at Longpo and Yulin at Yalong Bay near Sanya on the southern tip of Hainan Island.
As far back as 2001, a researcher at the PLAN’s Institute 715 had published a survey of ocean surveillance technologies that included a detailed discussion of the US SOSUS programme. Later, one of the most detailed discussions of China’s seabed-based surveillance networks appeared in the journal Shandong Science in 2010. However, Shandong was apparently not the only coastal area pushing forward with R & D on seabed-based sensors. Further down south and located near Shanghai at the mouth of large Hangzhou Bay, an ‘East Sea Ocean Floor Observation Test Station’, also known as the Xiaoqushan Station, was discussed extensively by Chinese researchers in an article appearing in Science Bulletin in 2011. Focussing on the collection of a variety of oceanographic information—tidal and current data, for example—experimentation with sonars is presently ongoing at this station with a wireless data-collection system that was commissioned into service in April 2009. Another analysis by several PLAN researchers in late 2012 discussed this station and military applications for its seabed-based sensors, alongside civilian uses, including environmental protection, navigation, and disaster prevention. The analysis compared different configurations for seabed-based sensor networks, including linear, circular, and tree-type designs, and also evaluating their respective cost, security and reliability implications. It also mentioned the Xiaoqushan Station as the basis for a larger ‘East Sea Ocean Floor Sensor Network’ that will be completed by 2016. The analysis also mentioned undersea mobile sensor stations, as well as fixed seabed sensors.

In early 2013, China Science Daily’s March 26 edition opted to go public with the system by publishing a feature with the banner headline: “Here They Are Quietly Listening to the Ocean: The Whole Story of the Building of Our Country’s First Deep Sea Ocean Floor Sensor Network Base”. According to this article, R & D efforts had commenced in 1996 and an initial prototype of the seabed-based sensor system was tested back in 2005 in the waters surrounding the PLAN’s base at Qingdao in Shandong Province. An additional site was selected for the Longpo naval base, and work formally commenced there in April 2009. Initial set-up was completed in 2010. The undersea-sensor system has since been integrated with a larger surveillance network that also has airborne and space-based components. Two articles appearing in mid-2013 in the technical journal Ship Electronic Engineering, confirmed that this network was now at an active deployment stage. One article discussed the technical challenge of energy supply by proposing a low-power ‘sleep-wake mode’, and mentioned the interesting additional problem that a country’s undersea sensors are subject to being captured by an adversary. Another article discussed the importance of advances in ‘burst communications’ for enhancing the military value of the seabed-based sensor network. A mid-2012 analysis in the naval magazine Modern Ships unequivocally confirmed the existence of PLAN’s network of seabed-based sensors. The cover-story of a second quasi-official naval journal, Naval & Merchant Ships from mid-2013, similarly showed an acute PLAN sensitivity to its perceived vulnerability to Western and Japanese submarines. The central concern shown there was protecting the PLAN’s SSBNs, while the main threat vector mentioned was the USN.
Moreover, it put forward a plausible theory of limited war in the nuclear age: “Limited war theory does not permit the enemy country to become a target. But to win the war one must defeat the enemy’s military forces so that the SSBN can become the ideal target.” The article asserted that the range of PLAN’s SLBMs (the JL-2 SLBM on the Type 094 Jin-class SSBN has a range of 7,400km) must be extended “so that one-way passage to the patrol area is shortened to 5-10 days.” At present, all PLAN-operated submarines are evaluated to be highly vulnerable to detection from “US warships employing active sonar as well as US Navy SSNs lurking near Chinese harbours.” To address this dire situation, the seabed-based surveillance system is deemed critical: “Among the various ASW elements, the seabed-based surveillance system is the foundation and heart, offering advanced warning for the sortie of ASW aircraft and light warship escorts.” The article continued: “The hardest part of ASW is early detection. If China can only find the targets, PLAN’s ASW forces can then apply pressure against the activities of US submarines, limiting their intelligence and attack capabilities.” While this article discusses other critical ASW elements—even highlighting the role of aircraft carriers, for example—a clear focus and conclusion of this analysis is the priority to deploy seabed-based surveillance systems. It envisioned a sequential process: “In order for China to build a relatively tight ASW network, we must first [outside of all major fleet bases] construct fixed seabed sonar arrays for continuous surveillance and control of sea areas close to ports.” The analysis further advocates that after building a network proximate to its naval bases, the PLAN should deploy seabed-based sonar arrays to the west of Okinawa, to the east of Taiwan, and into the Luzon Strait.” Nor should China’s ambitions for undersea surveillance be restricted to the “near seas,” according to this analysis, as it suggested that more distant areas, such as the Bay of Bengal, may be appropriate sites for future Chinese seabed-based sonar arrays “in order to support ASW operations in those sea areas.”

Growing Tentacles
The PLAN presently has an estimated 60 double-hulled submarines, of which 51 are diesel-electric SSKs (two Type 877EKM, ten Type 636, 13 Type 039 Song-class, four S-20/Type 041A Yuan-class, four S-20/Type 041B Yuan-class and 18 Type 035 Ming-class) and eight (four Type 091 Han-class and four Type 093 Shang-class) are nuclear-powered SSNs. In addition, there’s one Type 092 Xia-class and two Type 094 Jin-class SSBNs, with five more of the latter due for delivery in future. Also due for procurement in future are 15 single-hulled SSKs (most likely Russia’s Amur 1650-class) powered by indigenously-developed Stirling Engine air-independent propulsion systems. The number of PLAN submarine sorties has approximately quadrupled over the last seven years, with an average of 12 patrols being conducted each year between 2008 and 2015, following on from six in 2007, two 2006 none in 2005. In the Indian Ocean region (IOR), the PLAN has so far carried out three submarine patrols (all accompanied by Type 925/Type 926 submarine tenders), with the submarines being kept its vessels out at sea for 95 days during each patrol. 
The PLAN’s first SSN patrol within the IOR lasted from December 3, 2013 till February 12, 2014. One Type 093 Shang-class boat left Longpo its bastion at Yulin on December 3. Ten days later, on December 13, the SSN reached the Gulf of Aden via the Ombai Wetar Strait near Indonesia. It remained on patrol in the area for nearly two months. Next to follow was the Type 039 Song-class SSK ‘Great Wall 0329’, which later docked at the China-funded Colombo International Container Terminal in Sri Lanka from September 7 to 14, 2014 along with the Type 925-class tender 861 Changxingdao. This was followed by a patrol of a Type 091 SSN from December 13, 2014 to February 14, 2015. Next came a S-20/Type 041A Yuan-class SSK that docked at Pakistan’s Karachi port in late May 2015, and was accompanied by a Type 925 Dajiang-class submarine tender. From this, it can be deduced that in the years to come, the PLAN will continue with this practice of launching at the very least two annual long-distance patrols—one each by an SSN and SSK—into the IOR. Entry while remaining submerged into the IOR from either the South China Sea or the Pacific Ocean will be made through either the Lombok Strait or the Ombai Wetar Straits astride Indonesia. 
During future hostilities with either the US or India, the most likely destinations of PLAN’s SSNs within the IOR will be the area around Diego Garcia and the Chagos Trench. Diego Garcia is part of the Chagos Archipelago, situated on the southernmost part of the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge. To the east lies the Chagos Trench, a 400 mile-long underwater canyon that ranges in depth from less than 1,000 metres to more than 5,000 metres, and the most likely area where the IN’s SSBNs will be lurking during operational patrols.
All vessels, including warships, enjoy the right of innocent passage through archipelagic waters. Innocent passage requires a vessel to conduct continuous and expeditious transit in a manner that is not prejudicial to the peace, good order or security of the archipelagic state. For a submarine, innocent passage means transiting on the surface, as is the case with the Malacca Strait. But the Lombok Strait astride Indonesia is not considered archipelagic waters, rather it is part of an Archipelagic Sea Lane (ASL) that carves a path from Lombok in southwest Indian Ocean, through the Flores Sea, the Makassar Strait, the Sulawesi and Celebes Seas and on to the Pacific Ocean. It is like this because Indonesia desires sovereignty within the archipelago beyond the normal 12nm territorial water limit, which can be granted in relation to archipelagic states in certain circumstances, provided the ASLs are designated. For a submarine, normal passage means transiting submerged. The other interesting thing about ASLs is that, unlike innocent passage through archipelagic waters, which can be suspended temporarily on a non-discriminatory basis, this is not the case for ASLs. Any PLAN submarine can legally transit Lombok dived. If it chooses to loiter illegally and then gets caught, it can feign normal passage. 
Unlike the Sunda Strait—which forms part of a separate ASL, but is realistically too shallow for dived passage by all but the most daring/lucky of submarine operators—the Lombok Strait is relatively deep (varying between 800 and 1,000 metres). At the southern end of the Strait, where the channel is divided by the Island of Nusa Penida, a shallow sill is located. Depths rise to between 200 and 250 metres in the channel to the east of Nusa Penida. The sill is of huge importance to the oceanographic behaviour in the Strait, particularly since the Lombok Sea serves as one of two outlets (the other being the Timor Passage) for a great body of warm water that flows from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean—the so called Indonesian Throughflow. This sill, coupled with the Throughflow and tidal flow, results in relatively large current flows, typically from north to south, but is sometimes reversed. Current flows near the sill can reach 3.5 metres per second during spring tide periods. In the deeper water to the north of the sill it slows to between 0.2 to 0.5 metres. It must be noted, however, that current velocities vary as a function of depth. The upper 100 metres carry 50% of the total water transport through the Lombok Strait. Current velocities are, therefore, maximum at the surface with a sharp decrease from 75 to 300 metres. These currents are a quite significant for submarine operations, particularly diesel-electric SSKs, which must conserve battery life or that cannot take advantage of the deeper areas where the current is minimal. They also create interesting and complicated acoustic conditions for sonar on account of the varying temperature and salinity gradients across the current-related layers.

Other Expo Updates
The Arjun Mk.2 MBT prototype displayed at DEFEXPO 2016 hosted a new commander‘s panoramic sight developed by BEL. 
The earlier Arjun Mk.1A prototype had sported the ELBIT Systems-supplied COAPS panoramic sight.
Efforts also continue to achieve weight reductions not just for the Arjun Mk.2, but also for the T-72M1 and T-90 merdium battle tanks.
For supplying four LPHs to the Indian Navy, the competition is between the team of Fincantieri of Italy and Mazagon Docks Ltd on one hand, and Larsen & Toubro teamed up with Navantia of Spain.
Will upload several more slides in the coming days. 


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Anonymous said...

Sir, if the weight is being decreased and indigenization of parts increased for Arjun mk2 why are only 400 being procured. Is it not better than T-90 at the current stage. Thanks in advance.


Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To SRAVANTH: Yes, it is better, but it has arrived a wee bit too late. Had the reqd R & D funds been made available a decade ago, in mid-2005 itself, then there would have been no need for ordering additional T-90S medium battle tanks over & above the 600 already committed by then. Obviously long-term R & D planning wasn't done by either the MoD or the IA HQ & both are therefore to be blamed for over-reliance on the T-90S. For instance, when the Arjun Mk.1 variant was in the prototype development stage, no one in IA HQ bothered to allow the HQ's Master-General Ordnance (MGO) Branch to become a stakeholder in the R & D effort. As a result, the MGO Branch entered the fray & decided to mandate the 93 improvements ONLY AFTER orders for the first tranche of 124 Arjun Mk.1s was placed! Then the MGO Branch conducted its own firepower/mobility trials over & above what had already been conducted by the IA's Directorate-General of Mechanised Forces & the CVRDE. This was a totally wasteful & avoidable exercise by the MGO Branch & it should have been conducted in the late 1990s itself. Just how such criminal neglect was allowed to continue is anyone's guess. This is what delayed & perhaps even sabotaged the entire Arjun MBT R & D process. It sure all sounds too strange to be true, but it is all 100% true, rest assured.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

Interesting reads:

BROWN DESI said...

G'day Prasun..great work as always. I have been a long time reader of this informative blog. The comment that you made about Arjun Mk 2 to be better than T-90S i have some doubts about it. Consider the following and advise if my understanding/view is headed in right direction:
The Arjun MkI is powered by a German MTU MB 838 Ka-501 diesel engine. This engine is a modernized version of the MTU MB 838 CaM 500 multi-fuel engine that was first fitted to the Leopard 1 MBT in 1965. Thanks to various upgrades, and the addition of a supercharger, the Ka-501 can reach 1400 hp while the CaM 500 can only reach 800 hp. So fans of the Arjun MBT (and its manufacturer) would have you believe that this tank has excellent mobility thanks to a hp/weight ratio of 23,5 (slightly below average for a modern MBT but still within acceptable norms). However, raw engine power is only one of the factors that determines a tank´s mobility. The problem is that because of its outdated design, the Ka-501 engine is big, heavy, extremely fuel inefficient (a pitiful 200km range on good terrain while other MBTs can easily reach 500 km) and has very poor performance in terms of rpm and torque. These problems are worsened by the vehicles heavy weight (58 tons for the MkI and 68 for the MkII, the heaviest MBT in the world), meaning that the Arjun struggles at hilly terrain. The current version of the MkII still uses the same outdated, crappy engine, although there are plans to upgrade to a modern American Cummins engine coupled with a French suspension. So far, these plans have yet to materialize.
On paper, the Arjun´s armor is supposedly quite good. The manufacturer of the Arjun MBT claims that its "Kanchan heavy composite armour" is on par to the British Chobham armour from which it was developed. The Arjun MkI&II can also use locally manufactured ERA blocks, said to equal the performance of Russian Kontact-5 ERA from which they were developed as well. So theoretically, the Arjun´s armour uses excellent materials. The problem here is the design of the armour itself. The Arjun´s gun shield is significantly thinner than other modern MBTs. In addition, the primary gunner sight does not have a extra armour module. Notice how the left side of the turret is completely bereft of any composite armor . The gunner sits behind 250mm of spaced steel armor, and that´s it. Any modern APFSDS round will cut through that like it´s butter and vaporize the gunner.

The Arjun MKI&II both use the same gun: a 120/55 mm rifled gun inspired by the British L30 rifled tank gun used by the British Challenger 2. Proponents of the tanks will tell that because the gun is rifled, it is more accurate than the smoothbore guns used on the Abrams or the T-90. Modern ammunition doesn´t need a rifled barrel to be accurate and stable, since they are equipped with little fins at the end of their penetrator, that apply a spinning motion to the round as it travels through the air. Put simply, modern ammunition spins itself, and doesn´t need a rifled gun to be accurate. But the worst of all is the penetrating power of the Arjun´s main gun. At 2km, a round fired by the Arjun can only penetrate 300mm of Rolled Homogenous Armour (RHA). This is pitifully bad. At 2km, this tank won´t even be able to penetrate the side armor of most modern MBTs. As a comparison, most modern APFSDS rounds can penetrate between 700 and 900 mm of armor at 2 km. That´s 3x the penetration of the Arjun.
Hopefully it would never come down to a situation where one would need to discover just how effective the vehicle is, but I think that India can be proud of the Arjun design for being what it is: A solid MBT platform.
Your views on above are most welcome.
Brown Desi

Kunal Jadhav said...

Sir, I am getting more and more confused about the specs of LCA(navy) mk1 IAF variant.Do IAF variant will have MMR or IRST sensor ?. Please can you differentiate specs between navy and IAF variant.
Also give the deadline when the will be ready.

R. Sarath Kumar said...

Thank you for the previous answers, Sir!

I've been an interview of HAL chairman Suverna Raju and he has stated that 2 countries have shown interest in the LCH. Which are they likely to be?

Also, what is this "2B2" engine mentioned by him in this Q&A session?

Thank you,
Sarath Kumar R.

G said...


Why did you copy paste this from another forum??

1) There are inconsistency in Vincent's argument of the Arjun vs the Rest of the Tanks like range, thinnest of the Gun (absurd), amour, mobility, weight etc!!

2) Each country has its own requirements and uses for its Tanks and comparing them VS the World is Absurd!

3) Like any battle /warfare , there more to tank battles than whats on paper!!


Prasun Da,

Subho Noboborsho. Wishing You and your family nothing but continuous success.

Very interesting observation by you about that competition to supply the 4 LPD is between Fincantieri + Mazagon Docks and Navantia + L&T:

(1) In your opinion which of these two are best placed to win the contract?

(2) IIRC DCNS was also in the fray and they had a tie up with Garden Reach to supply the Mistral to the IN. Why were they not successful?

Thank You

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To BROWN DESI: 1) Performance of a diesel engine & its fuel efficiency does not entirely depend on the power output of the engine, but also on its synchronization with the gearbox. Only after both are tweaked & synchronised will optimum performance be obtained. To therefore say that the existing 1,400hp engine is below pare is a totally flawed conclusion. 2) All variants of Arjun MBT can attain 500km range as they carry two extra fuel ranks in the rear & thus the MBT can be refueled in the field. 3) Mobility & power-to-weight ratio is also influenced by the width of the tracks. The broader they are, the lesser the ground pressure per square inch. 4) The Arjun Mk.1A & Mk.2 weight 67 tonnes only when equipped with TWMP. This is 1 tonne lesser than the M-1A2, the world’s heaviest MBT. In any MBT Regiment, not all MBTs are equipped with TWMPs. Only those reqd for minefield breaching have TWMPs. Furthermore, with specialist vehicles like CMF-72 becoming available, frontline MBTs will no longer be reqd to breach minefields. 5) Arjun MBTs will never be employed in hilly terrain, they were never meant to be. The IA has far lighter T-72CIAs for that. 6) The gunner’s compartment has ERA tiles mounted externally & is by no means vulnerable to hits from APFSDS rounds. 7) Only when APFSDS rounds are used will it possible to rely on only smoothbore barrels. The Arjun is reqd to fire BOTH APFSDS & HESH rounds as well as thermobaric rounds. That’s why the rifled bore is reqd. 8) APFSDS penetrating power depends on the penetrating sabot’s travel velocity & thye density of the metal-alloy used to make the sabot. The latest available 120mm APFSDS round’s travel velocity & penetrating power is the same as that of the Russian 3BM-44M round. Even the earlier APFSDS round had 600mm RHA penetration at 2km while travelling at 1,650 metres/second. The latest round has a speed of 1,700 metres/second. Lastly, no IA MBT will ever be reqd to hit targets out to 2km. ALL tank-versus-tank engagements, as were the cases in 1965 & 1971, will take place at an average distance of no more than 700 metres. The tyranny of the terrain dictates this.

So, just take a deep breath before gulping in all the erroneous data spewed out by confused & convoluted keyboard ninjas.

To KUNAL JADHAV: Those specs are still being worked out. It’s too early to finalise them. IAF version of the LCA (Navy) Mk.1 will have EL/M-2032 MMR. The IRST sensor installation was proposed by me & me only for the existing Tejas Mk.1 version.

To R SARATH KUMAR: Sri Lanka & Myanmar. 2B2 is a version of the Ardiden/Shakti engine.

To SUJOY MAJUMDAR: VMT & the very same to you. Between the two, the Navantia offer has better chances of making it to L-1 status. But on performance specs, both offers are excellent.

पीयूष दास said...

Sir, humein super sukhoi banana hai...
rafale lena hai...
pakfa/fgfa bhi lena hai...
tejas bhi lena hai

do we have BUDGET for all these ?

i have'nt included cost of upgrading mirage, jaguar & other R&D stuff !

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To BROWN DESI: Watch this:

RASAYAN said...

Rafale deal has been finalised according to latest reports.
New year gift to IAF

Arpit Kanodia said...


Today 2 hours ago, OIC issued a join COMMUNIQUE, there are 2 points describing Israel occupation of Palestine and there are 6 points describing Indian Occupation of Kashmir. Thats hilarious. Its looking like ISI wrote the whole communique.

""""21. The Conference reaffirmed its principled support forthe people of Jammu and Kashmir for the realization of their legitimate right to self-determination, in accordance with relevant UN resolutions and aspirations of the people of Jammu and Kashmir. It further reaffirmed that Jammu and Kashmir is the core dispute between Pakistan and India and its resolution is indispensable for bringing peace in South Asia.

22. The Conference called on India to implement numerous UN resolutions on Kashmir which declare that the final disposition of the State of Jammu and Kashmir would be made in accordance with the will of the people expressed through the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite conducted under the auspices of the United Nations. It further reminded the international community of its obligation to ensure implementation of UN resolutions on Kashmir and fulfill the promise made with the people of Jammu and Kashmir 68 year ago.

23. The Conference affirmed its support to the wide-spread indigenous movement of the people of the Indian Occupied Jammu and Kashmir (IOK) for their right to self-determination. It urged that freedom struggle must not be equated with terrorism.

24. The Conference expressed concern at the indiscriminate use of force and gross violations of human rights committed in IOK by Indian security forces which have resulted in killing thousands of innocent and unarmed civilians as well as injuring hundreds of others including women, children and elderly, most recently the killing of a 22 year old woman, Ms. Shaista Hameed in Pulwama on 14 February 2016.

25. The Conference welcomed the establishment of a standing mechanism by the OIC Independent Permanent Human Rights Commission (IPHRC) for monitoring the human rights situation in the Indian Occupied Jammu and Kashmir. The Conference called upon India to allow the OIC Fact Finding Mission and the international human rights groups and humanitarian organizations to visit IOK. The Conference endorsed the recommendations of the OIC Contact Group on Jammu and Kashmir. It took note of the Memorandum presented by the True Representatives of the Kashmiri People to the Contact Group at its recent meeting.

26. The Conference called on the Islamic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO) and the Research Center for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA) to undertake activities to protect holy sites in Kashmir and preserve cultural rights and Islamic heritage. The Conference appealed to the Member States and Muslim institutions to grant scholarships to the Kashmiri students in deferent universities and institutions in OIC countries. """""

After that MEA issued this statement

Sir, your view on this. It seems like India threatening OIC.

monkey said...


how true is this report?

Anonymous said...

Things are getting hot

"INDIA HAS slowed down efforts to secure consular access to Kulbhushan Jadhav, who is being held in Pakistan on charges of being a spy, with Iran bringing the former Naval officer’s business operations in Chabahar port under the scanner, according to highly placed sources.

Iranian investigators are probing whether Jadhav’s mechanised dhow Kaminda may have been used — with or without his knowledge — to run trafficking operations, involving oil, guns, drugs and people, across the Indian Ocean rim, said sources."


Jay Bhanushali said...

Jay Bhanushali said...

$ 245 million per aircraft

At around $ 8.8 billion,
This single deal is bigger than entire pak defence budget

Dare aye duroost aye.
Finally the saga ends.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To ARPIT KANODIA: LoLz! Talking about Palestine while the Saudi-led GCC enlists Israel as an ally against Iran! That's exactly what international diplomacy is all about, i.e. signal one's going left & then abruptly take a right turn. The same applies to anything about J & K, rest assured. For, if it ever comes to the crunch, India & Iran will raise the temperature by going into agonising detail about the oppression brought upon the Shias of Gilgit-Baltistan. But that's beside the point, because the OIC is all about Oh! I See.

But I do have objections about the MEA statement, which should have spelt out that from a legal standpoint, it is Pakistan that has always stood against the implementation of UN resolutions on J & K since 1949 by refusing to vacate PoK, as mandated by the UNSC resolutions after the UN accepted & endorsed the legality of J & K's accession to India in October 1947. Unless Pakistan implements to the sequential steps or milestones reqd to be fulfilled, then everything else comes to a standstill. This is what the MEA statement should have mentioned, along with a brief statement outlining the Pakistani oppression since the late 1980s of the Shia population of Gilgit-Baltistan.

To RASAYAN & JAY BHANUSHALI: That contract value is not just the per-unit acquisition cost of the Rafale, but also includes the cost of setting up an entire support eco-system for sustaining the fleet, i.e. air base upgradation, cost of weaponry, cost of flight training simulators & the cost of setting up 1st-level & 2nd-level MRO facilities & the cost of training the human resources reqd for providing MRO support.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To MONKEY: Even if it is entirely true, then how exactly will the project costs be amortised? I ask this because Afghanistan has clearly expressed its interest in investing in the Chah Bahar FTIZ instead of Gwadar. So,l if Iran & Afgfhanistan along with India, France, the ROK, Oman & the UAE have all placed their bets on Chah Bahar, then what follows is that the Central Asian Republics too will follow suit. In other words, business activity centred on the Chah Bahar FTIZ will be far far far more compared to what transpires in Gwadar. Do not forget that the CPEC's cost-benefit ratio was based on transit-trade activities encompassing the whole of Central Asia plus Afghanistan & Pakistan. Afghanistan was the first one to withdraw after Pakistan threatened to divert the flow of waters of the Chitral River unless Kabul agreed to river-water sharing with Pakistan regarding waters from the Kabul River. And without Afghanistan, Pakistan cannot achieve trade connectivity with any part of Central Asia. Geographic realities therefore dictate that the Chah Bahar FTIZ will any day triumph over the Gwadar component of the CPEC. And the Chinese couldn't care less since they always wanted access to only an air-logistics hub in Gwadar, as I had explained earlier.

This also now explains why Pakistan is feeling the pinch & in a desperate move, Islamabad created the Kulbhushan Jadhav episode in a vain attempt to drive a wedge between India & Iran. But the wily Iranians did not bite, & instead the IRGC is now conducting its biggest-ever wargames since 1998 in Sistan-Baluchistan province, while the IA is conducting EX Shatrujeet in Rajasthan. Tough times indeed for the PA, because what it earlier thought about the Jadhav episode being a tactically brilliant move, is now proving to be a strategic blunder of epic proportions.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To G: That's a speculative story with ill-conceived perceptions. India knows only too well that Pakistan wants to exploit this issue only for propaganda purposes & therefore is not interested in dancing to Pakistan's tune. Also therefore, Kulbhushan Jadhav will continue to be treated extremely well while in custody so that he can be shown from time to time as a poster-boy. He will never be subjected to any form of torture. Had his confession not been tutored, then by now his entire unedited confession would have been uploaded by the ISI on YouTube for the whole world to see, just like the confession of the now-hanged MQM worker Soulat Mirza.

It is now fairly certain that Jadhav's Dhow was absconding for 2 months, i.e. since early February, while he last answered his cellphone on February 29. From this it can be deduced that his Dhow was seized in an act of state-spondored piracy while it was plying between Gujarat & Chah Bahar. The entire operation involved entrapment, meaning Jadhav would later have to negotiate with the pirates or with intermediaries of the pirates for the release of his Dhow. And that's when he was kidnapped along the Makran coastline & brought into Pakistani soil. This is the same tactic that was used by the ISI to coerce Dawood Ibrahim into agreeing to provide the sea logistics reqd for smuggling in the RDX explosives, primers, detonators etc etc for the 1993 Mumbai bomb blasts. What the ISI did was to lend support to the notorious Bhatti Brothers--then Pakistan's No.1 smugglers--to hijack at least 3 of Dawood's shipments of silver destined for Gujarat & Maharashtra. Next, the ISI sent word to Dawood about holding parleys aimed at forcing his hand & becoming a collaborator of the ISI.

Gopu said...

"torpedo systems in nuclear submarines, military attack helicopters and F-15 fighters were sent to India without State Department approvals"

A Defense black market?

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To GOPU: Not exactly, but more of an industrial fraud aimed at cutting corners for components fabrication at low-cost in India, & then misrepresenting the source of such components by submitting fraudalent paperwork to hide the source of such components.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

Pakistani analysts bitching about the intelligence agencies of the US, UK, Russia, Afghanistan, Iran & Israel all allying themselves with India:

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To LACHIT: For your weekend viewing pleasure:

Shantanu kumar said...

Sir, I had a confusion, the Tejas MK-1 you talked about; that is the ones in which you said it would be better to get rid of MMR and Install an IRST instead, were they the 40 Mk1s or 90 MK1As. Also what are your thoughts on MK1, MK1A and MK2. Will there be a MK2?

Anonymous said...

Hi Prasun,

According to this blog the K4 was indeed test fired from Arihant not once but twice. You mentioned that such a test was at least 3 years away. Would appreciate your clarification.

Best Regards

lachit said...



Qandeel Baloch is the next malala in the making

my fist attempt at shairee if u can call it to be

Pakistan ke har har gali me shor hai
Qandeel Baloch ke nakhre pakistanio ke leye bejor hai
mullah , general , budhe , nawzawan
har koi laethe hai Qandeel Baloch ka nam

camel , donkey , dog , sheep sex Pakistanio ne chora
jabe se sare pakistani Qandeel Baloch ke peche pichwara uthake daura


पीयूष दास said...

just some facts

Saudi Arabia have $29.4 billion order for 84 new Boeing F-15 jets at approx $350 million per piece

Kuwait has ordered 24 eurofighter typhoons for $9.1 billion at $379 million per bird

Qatar signed rafale deal for $7.02 billion at $291 million per jet

RAAF have placed order for 24 F18-SH for $4.64 at approx $193.4 million per plane

Saudi Arabia placed order for 30 Hawk jet trainers for $3 billion at $100 million per unit...

And none of the above deal include cost of modifications for use of indigenous weapons, or any sort of offset clause...

At $244 million a piece, I think parrikar has done very commendable job

rad said...

hi prasun
compromised rafale without aesa radar or meteor missiles ?? what is happening ?.

पीयूष दास said...

Congratulations to prasun sir, & all readers(indian) here for one of the best defence deal of our time...

1) sir, will we use Damocles pods on rafales or we will opt for lightening pods.

2) 1st level MRO & 2nd level MRO Matlab ?

3) what benefits will offsets bring to india other than monetary benefits & work culture ?

Akash said...

Sir, 1. Who manufactures and performs full assembly of the Tejas's wing? The various components like skin, and spars,ribs.The wing isnt shown on the poster from Tata advanced materials Limited.

2. Who provides the front fuselage fairings and the high temperature engine bay skins for Tejas?

3. Aluminium doesnt have any ballistic tolerance and impact strength.Cast iron is always more suitable for those tank wheels considering the fact that they will be subjected to small arms fire and slugs from 25-40 mm. Even an Ak round will make its way thrpugh those casting and can severly deform and degrade the wheels. doesnt the IA have any issues with this?

4. Why isnt IAF asking ADA and NFTC to integrate lightweight standoff PGM like Hammer , the Spice series with Tejas LCA and is instead only focussibg on Paveway 2 and dumb bombs? Also why isnt anyone asking for semi active laser guided 70 mm rockets for the LCH like the ones from FZ and BAE?

Anonymous said...

Hi Prasun,

What is this about?

Best Regards

Kashyap said...

Now that we have gone for rafale for IAF, isn't it just a matter of time before the navy chooses the Rafael-m for IAC-2?
Will those 40-50 naval rafale also be bought of the shelf or will they be assembled in india along with the the second and third trench of iaf rafales?
Since most of your predictions eventually come true i am taking it for granted that an assembly line for the rest of the rafales will be set up in india by the time the the first 36 are delivered to the IAF

I Also want you to clarify whether the 189 nos of rafale you have stated several times in the past includes the 40-50 nos of naval rafale or will the grand total of iaf and navy rafale mrcas will be 230 to 240 nos by the year 2032

DAshu said...

you again proved correct. You have a very very bad/unhealthy habit of predicting correctly regarding everything , almost everything.

monkey said...

I do not know much about the costs or how they will be recovered by the chinese. It could be a strategic decision.

Questions I have are related to how secure will the route be from Iran to Central Asia? On the map the route goes through Sistan-Baluchistan. From reading, that area is completely lawless and they hate the iranians there. Also when the route enters Afghanistan, it enters in the south, thats the area where taliban are the strongest. Who will provide security to our drivers there? Will india have to pay the iranians to provide security?

birbal said...

@monkey..uummm...without a tail, i suppose!!!!

birbal said...

@monkey..buuttt with a THINKING CAP on..

rad said...

I am looking forward to see a meteor missile up the f-16 arse and blowing it !!

birbal said...

@ rad

why waste a METEOR to BLOW the f-16 arse when we have the DEADLY Python to engulf the f-16 ARSE and make it more painful..:):)

Ved said...

Dear Prasun,
Please clear the picture. Are Rafales going to be assembled in India in after 36 will be delivered? If yes, how many.

please also share the "offset package" which must be as per my belief will be even better from technology point of view.

Is some tech. to India in the nuclear submarine arena?

ARH93 said...

Prasun da I have some questions about APFSDS. What is the shelf-life of APFSDS rounds? As much I know from 1999-2003 we directly imported total 46000 IMI CL3254M. IA still can use those rounds? ALso how many CL3254M/AMK-340A OFB-IMI co produced? As the blacklist on IMI is removed can OFB-IMI start producing it again? Why INDIA never developed DU APFSDS? Which APFSDS round is better 3BM-44M or NAIZA-DU?

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To SHANTANU KUMAR: I was referring to the 20 Tejas Mk.1s ordered by the IAF. The original order for 40 has now been scaled down to 20. If the LCA (Navy) Mk.1s face similar problems WRT reliability issues concerning the EL/M-2032 MMR, then these two ought to be retrofitted with IRST sensors instead of MMRs. Don’t forget that this version for the IAF too requires internal ASPJ & MAWES fitments. No such version called the Mk.1A exists. The Mk.2 version of both the Tejas & LCA (Navy) will definitely be developed, as per present plans.

To RAJ: Assertions by that blog were based on a story appearing in INDIA TODAY news-channel, & this report in fact was derived from a news-report emanating from NEW INDIAN EXPRESS. And the last report mentioned that this missile travelled out to a distance of 700km. What does this indicate to you? Furthermore, every SLBM developed worldwide has to undergo 2 successful ejection tests, followed by three successful test-firings from either a shore-based or undersea silo located beneath a pontoon, followed by 6 successful test-firings from the designated SSBN platform. So, if the K-4 SLBM has been test-fired only twice so far (as per the circulating news-reports), then in which category of test-firings or test-launches does the latest test fall?

To RAD & RAJ: Do we really need to crack our heads on a spurious news-report that contains no specifics, just false canards?

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To PIYUSH DAS: Every combat aircraft has 4 levels of MRO services. 1st-level is squadron-based within the air base & caters to reqmts for rotables & consumables like lubricants, additives, tyres, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen etc etc. . For levels-2 & -3 an intermediate workshop is required for 3 air bases. This workshop caters to the MRO reqmts for 3 air bases in all & takes care of servicing based on specified MTBFs of various avionics, instrumentation & accessories. The IAF’s various BRDs fall into this category. The level-4 caters to industrial facilities that take care of disassembly & rebuild of the airframes & engines, like what HAL possesses.

Any direct offsets for only 36 units won’t bring any monetary benefits. Instead, the acquisition bill will only increase. Only if the offsets involve buy-back agreements will there be tangible monetary benefits since the Indian vendors will become part of the global supplier chains of the involved French OEMs like Dassault Aviation, SNECMA Moteurs, THALES, Intertechnique, ALKAN, etc etc.

To AKASH: 1) That’s done by HAL, based on a technology & industrial processes developed by Italy’s Alenia Aeronautica & whose IPRs were later purchased by HAL. 2) HAL does. 3) We’re not talking about hardware made of pure aluminum, but aluminum alloys. 4) What experience has ADA got in weapons integration??? Such work has always been done by the IAF’s ASTE. NFTC is only concerned with flight-testing & airworthiness certification along with CEMILAC. It has nothing to do with weapons integration.

To KASHYAP: That is most likely to happen. While some will be arriving off-the-shelf from Dassault Aviation, the balance could well be licence-assembled, just like the follow-on tranche of 44 Rafales ro be licence-assembled for the IAF & orders for these (meant for the IAF) will be placed in 2017. IAF’s reqmt is for 189 Rafales & never have I stated anywhere that this figure of 189 also includes the IN’s reqmt for carrier-based MMRCAs. So the figure of 189 is IAF-specific & does not include reqmts for any other end-user.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To DASHU: LoLz! The only ones who wanted me to be proven wrong were all those who wanted to make quick money by sowing doubts & spreading false canards, i.e. Delhi-based magazine publishers of all hues who wanted to seek advertisement revenues from Saab & Eurofighter GmbH. You may note that in all these publications, only ads from Saab & Eurofighter were published. Boeing & Lockheed Martin never did so after they were disqualified back in 2011. Lockheed Martin now advertises only its C-130J in Indian magazines, while Boeing does so about its C-17A, CH-47F, AH-64D/E & the Scaneagle UAV.

To MONKEY: Based on my own visits to southwestern Afghanistan & southeastern Iran last year & earlier this year, I can state beyond doubt that the road/railway transportation routes straddling Iran-Afghanistan-Central Asian Republics are totally secure & have been since 2011, compared to the routes that Pakistan dreams about building from Gwadar to Chaman to Kandahar & from Gwadar to Peshawar to Torkham.

To VED: 44 will be licence-assembled in the second order tranche that will be placed next year. There will be similar other successive tranches in the years to come. Offset package will likely involve buy-back provisions that will enable Indian vendors to become members of the global supplier chains of various French OEMs.

To ARH93. Standard shelf-life is 10 years. OFB never licence-produced any IMI rounds of any type. Nor is there any need to do so. Sabots made of DU have only a 15% better chance of armour penetration. This 15% superior performance can & has been easily achieved with sabots made of tungsten-alloy through better shaping (both lengthening & broadening) of the sabot body, especially WRT 120mm unitary rounds.

Vikram Guha said...


1. Can the K-9 Vajra use the same shells that the T-90 uses?

2. Will you please shed some light on what exactly is the "buy back provision" that you have described w.r.t the Rafale deal?

3. How much weapons grade plutonium or uranium is used while designing a single warhead for a nuclear missile like Trident, Minuteman or Topol?

Thanks & Regards,

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To VIKRAM GUHA: K-9 Vajra's barrel diameter is 155mm, the T-90S' barrel has 125mm diameter. Buy-back provision means if an Indian vendor is producing components for a particular piece of hardware of French origin, then such components will not only be used for hardware meant for Indian armed forces, but also for hardware that its OEN/IPR-holder is exported to other countries worldwide. So, Boeing-designed sub-structures for the AH-64 & CH-47F will, for instance, not only make their way into the AH-64s & CH-47Fs destined for the IAF, but will also be on board all AH-64s & CH-47Fs being produced by Boeing for both the US armed forces & for exports to other countries. Typically, the weapons-grade plutonium fissile core for a MIRV is not more than 10kg.

Jay Bhanushali said...

VMT for your answers. So the order for next trench will give a better idea of per unit cost as that wont involve most of the other expenses you have mentioned?
will HAL be responsible for assembly or will a private player ie reliance finally get a chance?

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To JAY BHANUSHALI: Yes, because the expenditure incurred for procuring simulators, air base upgradation works, MRO workshops etc etc will not be repeated for the follow-on orders. I don't see HAL entering the fray for final airframe assembly. It is already licence-building several avionics units that are common to the Rafale, upgraded Mirage 2000Ns, MiG-29UPG, Tejas Mk.1 & Su-30MKI. But the preference this time is for a greenfield facility that will be owned, run, controlled & driven by a consortium of private-sector corporate entities.

nag said...

Excellent precentation.many of your points of chinese defence industry expressed similarly by the speeker.

Anonymous said...

Dear Prasun,

Pakistan is going in full speed in spreading the Lies.

There is a proverb "1000 Times if you tell one lie it become a Truth".

1) Do you belive that world is beliving what paki is telling abouy indian spy?
2) What indian govenment should do during this time?

Please comment.

S.Senthil Kumar

Pierre Zorin said...

Bandalbaaz in his awaaz says that one of the reasons India is not signing the LEMOA CISMOA BECA is because it will make the Russians cranky and they will cancel the lease of the Akula! He has brought foreign policy down to neighbourly tit for tats. What about the financial loss Russia will suffer if it cancels the lease. But more than that- India already has bought and is using US made hardware besides Russia's. The US hardware is covered by those contracts not Russia's. I hardly think Russians are relying on snooping on Indian hardware acquired from the US to get any know-how and I would find it hard to believe signing those agreements with the US would endanger any business venture India has with Russia. If India has been using US origin weaponry anyway mere logistical agreement with the manufacturing nation would seldom have an impact. If as a common man I can see things using common sense fancy an ex-army man blowing such hot air!

Anonymous said...

Hi Prasun Da,

I would like to draw your attention towards ongoing Handwara shooting case. I have gone thru various articles in Greater Kashmir , Rising Kashmir and other media sources originating from local media houses (Kashmir valley).
1) How shall we counter this propaganda-war? I am have seen approx. zero rebuttal for this type link sharing in social-media like facebook. Coz,these helps adversary to propgate more & more brain-washed youth into stone-pelting; which then transforms into self-defence firing incidents.

2) Aren't we unable to curb Hawala -money, which gives them fertile ground ?

Thanks & Regards,
S Thakur.

Pierre Zorin said...

A light on the MCTR please Prasun. So the US was against allowing India into this which is why they opposed those UAVs from Israel and US manufacturers you said. Seeing they are now so keen on the US-India alliance and the CISMOA, LEMOA and BECA have they changed their stance? I am assuming there are the big 5 in the MCTR "board"so to speak so is it just China who opposes India's entry? Can the other 5 not vote India into it? If India is made a signatory member, can then the leased Akula and any other N-sub sitting in Russia be purchased?

Vijay said...

Dear Sir

Pakis are DYING of Grief after the Rafale Finalisation news has come

Let us give them MORE grief by Finalising S 400 and PAK FA deals

Soubhagya said...

Dear Prasun,

May you please throw some light on the issue on the bill to be put off by the US government on Saudi Arabia roll in 9/11. Saudi too threatened to pull 750 billion dollars from us economy. Please describe about it. Thnx in advance.

aarya said...

Great detailed article dada thank you for ur eforts

ARH93 said...

prasun'da can you tell me IA bought which 66000 APFSDS round older 3BM-44 mango or newer 3BM-44M?

Jay Bhanushali said...

To Prasunda, Wow, amazing research and superbly detailed writeup on undersea SOSUS. Your knowledge of geopolitical and geostrategic topics is unmatched. is india contemplating any such network of its own undersea? is it even needed or the SOSUS is adequate?

Is there also a chance of India joining the 'Five eyes' intelligence sharing agreement in the near future. It would be of immense help against Pakistani Terrorists?

Jay Bhanushali said...

To Nag, nice video, i especially like where the Russian speaker says "only Indians can Afford a zoo in their airforce, not even Americans can" view from 39:00 to 41:00.
its funny but true..

पीयूष दास said...

Thank you sir, for such a detailed article on oceanbed eavesdropping...

rad said...

HI prasun
Please explain the advantage of an IIR missile vs active radar missile , for anti cruise missile defense ?.

rad said...

hi prasun
great scoop on the sea bed sensor system very enlightening tech.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To S THAKUR: Nothing to worry about. Stone-pelting goes in more than 60 locations throughout India on any given day. Doesn't mean the whole world has turned upside down for everyone. And what goes on in one locality of Srinagar or in one village or township of J & K State does not in any way represent the entire state of affairs of that state.

To PIERRE ZORIN: It's all about what one is able to bring to the table for negotiations. So for as long as India dithered on inking the various foundational pacts, the other side also introduced various canards. It's like what had happened in the early 1990s when Bill Clinton was passionately espousing the cause of CTBT & therefore used that lady Deputy Secretary of State for South Asia to spread the word that the US considered J & K to be a disputed geographical entity. She followed her orders & did so, but she incurred the wrath of India even though she was just the messenger & not the policymaker. Subsequently, when began talks on CTBT in Geneva, the US reverted back to its original position of saying that the J & K issue was a bilateral matter between India & Pakistan & that the J & K was an issue of dispute, & not disputed territory.

Lesson: One often rushes into conclusions by assuming that the person on the driver's seat is calling the shots, whereas in reality it is the passenger seated in the rear in the shadows that is giving all the directions.

To VIJAY: S-400 & FGFA will have to wait since none of the two are ready. Even at DEFEXPO 2016 neither the S-400 not the FGFA were showcased in any form. Instead, the V-2500 LR-SAM was showcased. But if you want to give them more grief, then refer them to the ongoing 19-day anti-dacoity operation now underway in the trijunction of south Punjab, Sindh & Baluchistan, where AH-1F helicopter gunships are being used to eliminate the 'Chotu Gang'. You can get to know all about it here:

Also, watch these:

Conducted tour of CSTC-built F-22P FFG PNS Zulfiquar:

Tour of Gwadar:

Prasun K. Sengupta said...


To ARH93: 3BM44M APFSDS rounds.

To JAY BHANUSHALI: Any country with a fleet of SSBNs & SSNs must have such a seabed-based surveillance network. Without it, the homeports of SSBNs & SSNs will always be in grave danger.

To RAD: Firstly, it is the cost factor. IIR sensors are cheaper than RF seekers. Secondly, any LACM does not possess any IIR countermeasures to neutralise IIR-guided SAMs. But its terrain-hugging & terrain-masking flight-profile does enable it to avoid sites manned by SAMs equipped with RF seekers. Therefore, the best & most effective countermeasure is an optronic fire-control system (using IRST-type sensors) mated with vertically-launched IIR-guided SAMs.

Mayur M Manapure said...

The chhoti gang fiasco gives one enough hindsight about the lawlessness and the incompetence of the civil machinery. What's more laughable is that more than 20 police personnel were abducted in the operation. Enough said, I think its a ploy by the Army and ISI to reign more control over the Punjab province, so as they can have more leverage while dealing w with the Nawaj Gareeb(He might be a billionaire but he is a pussy in front of Army).
Also the Kulbhushan Jadhav's arrest has brought more trouble for Pakistan itself which has left Iran fuming. Make no mistake, Iran don't take such allegations lightly, it will make the Pakis pay.

Also my question is Prasun Da, since the former Naval officer is innocent, how are a supposed to secure his release. He is going to rot there, and that's not something we should let happen to an ex-serviceman.

buddha said...

what an article......awesome in one word

Vijay said...

Dear Sir

I would like to ask a question about GRIPEN Fighter plane

I want to Know HOW it is SO MUCH better than LCA given that the engine is the same

The speed ; combat radius ; payload ; 8 hard points ;Angle of attack is also great
sensor fusion

What have they done right ; It has got canards too

What this means is that the KNOWLEDGE GAP in India was so Huge that we will be able to
match the Gripen only with LCA MK 2

rad said...

hi prasun
great explanation. I would then suggest that we have the python 5 as our standard anti cruise missile defense missile .will it be affordable ? Dont we need a radar at an elevation to catch the babaur , raad etc . The pakis are going to target the rafales with cruise missiles for sure. We need to have a solid defense against a surprise attack as they have always done in the past hoping to catch us of gaurd

Vikram Guha said...

Prasun Da,

This is serious. It seems 3 R&AW officers have defected to the West...again

As a reminder till about a couple of years ago even two-bit players like Sri Lankan and Polish intelligence have been caught plying their trade in India

Proves how garbage India's counter intelligence is.



Vijay said...

@ Vikram Guha

I dont think this is true ; it might be a deliberately released baloon

Such news generates telephonic chatter and internet chatter
which is then traced and monitored leading to useful information

If defections occur they are known after many years ; not so soon in just three months

Anonymous said...

Its a very nice informative article prasun. Infact the article is so good that I and some friends discussed it at length. Infact it is the reason why chinese are investing in pak. Any other reason makes no sense. They are being choked from every side. That is the only side left for them and its direct to the mouth of the gulf. They are buying Pak off.


Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To RAD: Of course radars are reqd, & that’s where aerostat-mounted medium-power airspace surveillance radars like the EL/M-2083, plus passive surveillance/radar fingerprinting systems like the DRDO-developed/ECIL-built ‘Divya Drishti’ enter the fray. The PA’s Baburs & Ra’ad’s non’t have on-board SAR seekers, rather they have slotted-array antennae designed to home in on targets with large RCS, like oil/LNG storage farms and petrochemicals complexes. Furthermore, SL-QRM/QR-SAM systems like SpyDer-SR with Python-5s will always be available to the frontline air bases as well as main air bases housing high-value aircraft assets. In addition, IAF combat aircraft assets will be in a dispersed state prior to commencement of hostilities, just like they were in 1971. Then, a deep-asset of R & AW located within Gen Yahya Khan’s kitchen cabinet had forewarned R & AW about the impending PAF air-strikes of December 3, & the IAF consequently began dispersing its aircraft assets from November 28 itself. This incident has been described in detail by the late B Raman in his book THE KAOBOYS OF R & AW. Today, with the availability of overhead recce satellites & Bombardier 5000 battlespace surveillance aircraft equipped with SAR sensors, it is fairly easy to gauge & map the elevation of readiness levels on both the western & northern fronts. The element of surprise is therefore largely missing on the western front, due to Pakistan’s elongated geography.

To MAYUR M MANAPURE: If he indeed is a genuine espionage agent, then by now he would have been presented to the BBC or CNN or Al Jazeera for one-on-one interviews. Only then would the world have believed Pakistan’s POV. But this will never happen, rest assured, & he will be let off free after another 6 months. Meanwhile, efforts must be made to find out what happened to his Dhow & what was the last recorded navigation waypoint of the Dhow’s GPS-based navigation system. That will spill the beans.

But what is most laughable is how some Indian bleeding-hearts with no idea about realpolitik never tire of engaging in utopian mumbo-jumbo, especially in Pakistani TV talk-shows. Here’s one prime example:

This chap in the early to mid-1980s was a die-hard Marxist-Leninist when working with R K Karanjia’s BLITZ Group in Mumbai. By the late 1990s he became a turncoat & became A B Vajpayee’s speechwriter & over the past 3 years he once again decided to be born-again & morphe into a peacenik who wears blinkers that just cannot be explained in any logical manner.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To VIJAY: You’re missing the big picture just as many others are, & comparing apples with oranges, & therefore even in officialdom, everyone today is clueless about 1) acknowledging the mistakes in decision-making, & 2) undoing the wrong by taking corrective measures. You cannot compare the DRDO’s labs with Saab, since the latter was an experienced developer of combat aircraft for decades. The real reason why the LCA is still not yet an operationally-qualified MRCA is because the brains behind the R & D efforts were unqualified & inexperienced. That’s why the Govt of India then led by a buffoon called Rajiv Gandhi refused to heed the IAF’s advice on HAL being made the nodal R & D authority for the LCA, & instead got swayed by the propaganda of the technocrats & bureaucrats of the MoD & DRDO of that time. Consequently, each & every Division of HAL dealing with R & D on airframe, avionics, instrumentation, accessories etc, etc got replicated & that’s how ADA, ADE & DARE were born. It was all about the DRDO’s empire-building exercise. Rajiv Gandhi was such a buffoon that while he never tired of talking about taking India into the 21st century, he never had any roadmap for what methodology should be applied to achieve his daydreams. Similarly, his mother too had coined the slogan ‘Gharibi Hatao’ without ever spelling out how exactly to go about it step-by-step. Thanks to Rajiv Gandhi, India missed the cellular comms revolution by an entire decade just because he had no idea about how to increase India’s telephone density & therefore fell prey to Dr Sam Pitroda’s ill-conceived propaganda about creation of PCOs taking precedence over introduction of mobile phones. So, thanks to the buffoon & his cronies at the helm, the entire R & D infrastructure reqd for the LCA’s development was duplicated & this led to enormous loss of financial resources & misuse of skilled human resources already existing with HAL. For instance, critical avionics like TACAN, IFF transponders & software-defined radios for all aircraft flown by the IAF have been developed in-house by HAL, & not the DRDO.

Thus, one wrong led to another & there came a stage in the mid-1990s when the DRDO under the late A P J Abdul Kalam decreed that no weapon system could be imported unless & until the DRDO first tried & failed to develop them in-house. This then led to procurement bottlenecks & postponement of urgent procurement exercises & today we are all seeing the consequences of such ill-conceived decrees. And we continue to make larger-than-life figures & indulge in hero-worship ofsuch personalities who gifted us with such decrees! History is now being repeated, i.e. just as a bunch of techies with no prior skill/knowledge of aeronautical engineering or systems integration was entrusted to develop the LCA, a similar bunch of techies is now trying to re-invent the wheel by trying to come up with ATAGS, when the OFB on the other hand has already developed 45-cal & 52-cal versions of the Bofors FH-77B towed 155mm howitzer! As to how much longer such farcical ‘nautankis’ will continue, much to the detriment of India, your guess is as good as mine!

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To VIKRAM GUHA: You're assuming that the contents of that news-report are 100% factual. If that's the case, then rest assured that the names of these 3 officials would have been publicly reported by now.

Anonymous said...

If true this has blown a whole, so wide in raw that you could sail a carrier through it. Lets hope it is not true!


Gopu said...

1) Great article. But why would JICA fund the construction of an undersea network of seabed-based surveillance sensors stretching from the tip of Sumatra right up to Indira Point when the SOSUS graphic you provided already covers that region? The area between Myanmar and North Andaman would be a better choice.
2) Is there a cost escalation clause for the Rafale that prevents costs from growing beyond X% per annum? What is the final armament package? Can the Rafale be modified to use far cheaper Indian weapons?
3) Most G-G deals typically follow a progression from direct import, to SKD assembly, to CKD assembly. What is the rationale for this? Starting from SKD or CKD assembly would lead to marginal cost savings at the expense of a few month's delay.
4) If the Ka-226T is solely to bail out Russia, the Ruskies surely can offer something better if they want to get a bailout. Perhaps a JV for maritime helicopters, PGMs, or hand-held UAVs could work.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To GOPU: 1) The SOSUS network presently does not cover that stretch between northern Sumatra & Indira Point. The slide shows what WILL BE covered in future. One cannot enter the northern Andaman Sea without first egressing out of the Malacca Straits. 2) There always is. Armaments package is the same as that mentioned in the thread dealing with the Rafale MMRCA back in 2012. Only new additions in future will be BrahMos-NG & Nirbhay ALCMs. 3) That sequence is for the purpose of negotiating the industrial skills curve. However, I personally am against exercising the SKD or CKD or licenced-manufacturing options for imported platforms, since they only gulp up money that should otherwise be invested in indigenous platforms. 4) The Ka-226T without tail-rotors is actually quite a good platform for CASEVAC/MEDEVAC & is equally good for monitoring power transmission lines. Therefore, they will be better-suited for missions mounted by Pawan Hans in support of the NDRF & MHAI.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To NONAME: Yes indeed that's the case, but it is an exercise with diminishing returns. India has already decided to engage more with Japan, RoK & Taiwan WRT inviting economic/industrial investments & of course the nett loser will be China. If China expects Pakistan to replace India's purchasing power in the years to come, then I can only have a good laugh & wish Beijing all the very best of luck. In addition, Pakistan has deliberately decided to court trouble with Japan & the US by siding with China on the South China Sea issue & lobbying against Japan's entry as a permanent member of the UNSC. Pakistani diplomats now talk only about according importance to the UNSC's P-5 & Germany. This of course have negative consequences for Pakistan. So, if countries like Japan & RoK along with India invest in Chah Bahar & by extension also in the economies of Iran, Afghanistan & the Central Asian Republics, then that will further marginalise the Gwadar Port from a financial standpoint.

Lastly, after the Rafale MMRCA deal is inked by India, expect China to announce that the PAF will be the launch customer for the Shenyang FC-31 twin-engined MRCA. I was told about it by CATIC & AVIC officials last February during the Singapore Air Show. That's the reason why the FC-31 comes powered by twin RD-33 turbofans--the very same engines powering the JF-17 light MRCA. The PAF desperately requires a twin-engined combat aircraft that can be employed as a deep interdictor. CATIC/AVIC officials are of the view that series-production of the FC-31 will get underway only by 2020.

Will try to get some more updates from them when I meet them over the next 24/48 hours during the DSA-2016 expo in KL, Malaysia.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

Watch this latest programme on Gwadar:

Shantanu kumar said...

Prasun sir, just saw this :
what could you tell about this new approach of IAF on this 10 year plan, also what is your view on Pvt players in defence, specially start ups, and would it be possible for your give some advice to new people in this game?

dipan chakraborty said...

Prasun sir Why is drdo not developing liquid fueled heavy ICBM like SS-18-satan I belive developing silo based ICBM easier than road mobile solid fueled ICBM and they can also carry greater no of mirv as they have much larger throw weight you comments plz

Anonymous said...

Sir, thanks very much for the reply.

Never expected the FC-31 to be ready by 2020. Can Pakistan even afford the plane. Sir, do the air force or govt have a clue and are we atleast prepared on how to counter it. Looks like China has answer/plan for whatever decision India takes. I was happy that we are getting the Rafaels, but never expected this. Hope to get more info from you soon. Thanks in advance.


पीयूष दास said...

Sir, aren't you missing some aspects of gwadar-chah bahar saga...?

All the gulf countries may prefer to use gwadar route instead of chahbahar, afterall they don't want to strengthen or be dependent on IRAN...

Pakistan is also part of the 34nation muslim military alliance. They can leverage this to persuade these 34 nations to choose gwadar...

Lastly, China has very strong economic clout & if it throws its weight behind gwadar then even African nations will choose CPEC...

Soubhagya said...

Dear Prasun,

May you please throw some light on the issue on the bill to be put off by the US government on Saudi Arabia roll in 9/11. Saudi too threatened to pull 750 billion dollars from us economy. Please describe about it. Thnx in advance.

Kashyap said...

Prasunda, Great post on the SOSUS..

could you please give some details of the PLAAF modernization program over the next 10 to 15 years

They seem to have a hell of a lot of ancient junk in large numbers.

What platforms are they likely to upgrade, replace, maintain.

what is the current status of both Stealth fighter programs of China and also the various versions of the su27s being developed

Also, is the fc31 just for exports like the jf17 or will they buy it themselves as well.

If they do buy it for PLAAF then won't it be difficult to supply the PAF so early? And will they follow the jf17 model and deliver first trench only with IOC standard?

Would be great if you could do an entire post on the PLAAF aircraft fleet modernization and augmentation plans for next 15 yrs

Also which fighters are they likely to use against India in case of hostilities

VMT in advance

rad said...

hi prasun
Are you confirming that india has already received the bombardier Israeli SAR equipped plane. That calls for more revelation !!. how many and who is operating them?.

Gessler said...

The Undersea Webs article is EXCELLENT, Prasun ji! Thank you so much for all the info - you should be charging us for this!


A couple questions regarding India's role in the Middle East, sir ji -

1) ISRO and the UAE Space agency had recently signed a deal for cooperation on the Arab's first Mars mission, scheduled for mid-2020, and expected to ride on PSLV.

So the question arises, do you suppose ISRO could get in on the civilian space market within GCC? Like providing communication, remote-sensing & navigation satellite services?

And is there any chance for us to provide similar services to Iran as we're already signed up for providing remote-sensing data to ASEAN countries with a base in Vietnam?

2) Any progress on the supposed planes for supplying RISAT and GSAT-7 type military satellites to UAE/GCC? You reported on the existence of such plans a couple months ago.

3) About Iran's plans for procuring Su-30SM Flankers - do you suppose HAL's facilities in Nasik or elsewhere stand to gain anything in the form of component-production for Iran's aircraft? Or is everything gonna come directly from Russia alone? Or is Iran planning on a production line of it's own?

4) How many such Su-30s do you suppose Iran could procure ultimately? I would assume they'd want to replace all their old F-14 Tomcats with it, and then some.

Unrelated, but -

5) How soon, if ever, do you see India mounting some kind of armed forces deployment or action in Afghanistan in support of ANSF units?

Thanks in advance, sir ji.

R. Sarath Kumar said...

Hello Sir,

I hear that Pakistan is going to get 8 new AIP-equipped submarines from China called Qing-class.

Are these submarines equipped with some sort of cruise missile VLS or SLBM silos? What kind of armament do you think these submarines could have in PN service?

Can they pose a nuclear threat from the sea?

VMT sir, thank you for previous answers as well.
Sarath Kumar R.

birbal said...

@ Prasunda,

Great work Prasunda as usual on SOSUS network...Have a HAPPY outing at DSA-2016 expo in KL, Malaysia..

@ Gessler

Hey bro i like the way you defended the Indian Dassault Rafale deal on defenceforumindia, specially against that BUDDAA ...:):)
I like your photo given there. You look like a MAN ready for ACTION anytime anywhere...
By the way is that REALLY you, I mean the PHOTO...:)

Gessler said...


Thank you, much appreciated. I have been pro-Rafale since the very beginning of the contract drama (in 2012). It is the anti-Rafale junta who's statements are always horrible inconsistent.

1) At first, they argued that Rafale has no chance of being shortlisted in MMRCA.

2) When it got shortlisted, they argued that EF Typhoon will easily win.

3) When Rafale was declared L-1, they lost their shit - they started crying for the whole program to be cancelled!

4) When MoD decided to cancel the MMRCA method of acquisition, the anti-Rafale junta had a moment of celebration....until MoD/GoI started direct negotiations with Dassault for the purchase of Rafale. Obviously IAF saw it's merits and capabilities and wasn't ready to let it go.

5) When negotiations started again, they again started crying for it all to be cancelled.

6) When the negotiations for the purchase of first 36 kept going forward, now they started clamoring that the deal will stop at 36 and no more will be bought!

I laugh at them. Obviously they're on payroll of somebody who doesn't like Rafale for some reason. Maybe that someone was molested by a French mob as a child - that's why all the hatred because of childhood trauma.

And no, that's not me in the avatar, that's a soldier from a Spetsnaz photo-op (though the helmet worn by the supposed GRU guy confuses me, it looks Western).

Have a nice day!

birbal said...

@ Gessler

"...someone was molested by a French mob as a child - that's why all the hatred because of childhood trauma"

Hahaha....nice JOKE buddy..Keep it UP

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To SHANTANU KUMAR: LoLz! Even you & I can draft such elaborate plans & wishlists, but they all tantamount to ‘putting the cart before the horse’. Everything starts & ends with money. Without first finalising the quantum of financial resources & sticking to the funding roadmaps & schedules, nothing moves forward, nor will it ever. Just show me when was the last time the Union MoF & the MoD agreed on a fully-funded Five Year Defence Plan, leave along a long-term perspective plan? If money allocation will be decided upon only on an annual basis & that too the quantum tends to fluctuate, then who in his/her right mind will even bother to make a fixed-price business investment for the medium-term or long-term? If I am an investor, then I would like to have precise figures regarding the business cashflow, which can only be determined if the quantum of orders is confirmed & if that is matched by the proof-of-funds being furnished by the buyer. If these cardinal prerequisites are missing, only someone mad or crazy will even think of taking risks & gambles in uncharted territory. For instance, the MoD should clearly specify exactly how many Dhruv/Rudra ALHs & LCHs & LUHs/RSHs are reqd for the 3 armed services & within what timeframe. Only then can HAL make serious long-term plans for production & selection of sub-contractors & tie them in on involvement in all helicopter programmes for the next 30 years. That’s how it is done all over the world. If the MoD wants Indian OEMs to develop diesel engines only for re-engining the BMP-2 ICVs, no one will step forward. But if the MoD wants to select one OEM for developing not just the engines for BMP-2 ICVs, but also for the FICV & APC & even for the FMBT, only then will one see enthusiasm emanating from the private-sector OEMs in terms of investing in R & D. Every OEM worldwide wants surety of project cost amortisation & minimal project management risks. And these can be achieved only if the money-supply chain is guaranteed. Right now in India, it isn’t & this is a sad reflection of unsound fiscal management. Unless this fundamental systematic deficiency is overcome, one will never be able to attain all the ambitious hardware indigenization targets that routinely emanate nowadays. All these were discussed at the International Seminar on 'Make in India' Paradigm: Roadmap for a Future Ready Naval Force, being held from April 18-19, 2016 at the FICCI Federation House in New Delhi. I’ve uploaded the brochure of this seminar above.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To DIPAN CHAKRABORTY: All those who had developed & deployed liquid-fuelled ballistic missiles are reverting to usage of solid propellants, & you want India to go back to the past? Silo-based ICBMs in static locations are extremely vulnerable to first-strikes. And where exactly is the quantum of land available in India for housing such huge, spread-out silo installations when it is a herculean task to acquire land for even constructing naval bases or industrial infrastructure?

To SRAVANTH: Developing an airframe is quite easy, but not its turbofans. The FC-31 will be available by 2020 only because it uses the Klimov RD-93 turbofan, the same that’s being used by the PAF’s JF-17. But just because the FC-31 boasts of a stealthy airframe doesn’t mean everything inside, especially its mission avionics suite, will be state-of-the-art by any stretch of imagination. Therefore, the FC-31 at best will be a Gen-3++ MRCA.

To PIYUSH DAS: Missing what? What exactly do the Persian Gulf-based countries export to Pakistan apart from LNG & crude oil? Their exports to/imports from Afghanistan are presently marginal. And how will these countries achieve connectivity with Afghanistan or Central Asia when Kabul itself is against the usage of Karachi or Gwadar? CEO Abdullah Abdullah paid a fact-finding visit to Chah Bahar last January. Has any Afghan minister or official ever visited Gwadar? How will crude oil-/coal-exporting countries from Africa send their wares to China when there is no available all-weather road or rail transportation infrastructure along the Khunjerab Pass? Lastly, Oman & the UAE have already officially committed themselves to investing in the Chah Bahar FTIZ. Ground realities therefore dictate that there are no more ifs, can & could concerning Gwadar’s future potential. Gwadar will provide connectivity to Afghanistan only if Pakistan agrees to the Afghan demand for deporting all Afghan Taliban leaders now holed-up in Quetta & Peshawar—a demand Pakistan will reject for sure. So the option then for India, Iran, Russia & other Central Asian Republics is to make Afghanistan strong enough to stand up to & stare at Pakistan, so that Pakistan’s ill-conceived hegemonic pressure tactics are neutralised. And the Middle Eastern states don’t enjoy any leverage over Afghanistan or countries of Central Asia simply because the former doesn’t have any trade connectivity with the latter. So, how exactly will they exercise influence over Afghanistan or any of the Central Asian Republics as part of efforts to support Pakistan?

To KASHYAP: FC-31 is purely for export & that too to Pakistan only. Nor will the FC-31 be a 4th-generation MRCA. Have explained it in my comment above.

To RAD: Deliveries were completed last year itself. Details about ho9w many & for whom were given in the thread that hosted the photo of this platform.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To GESSLER: VMT. 1 & 2) Those are presently being discussed between India & the GCC-member-states. 3) Russia will supply the aircraft off-the-shelf. Indian OEMs can supply the ground-handling equipment, & train IRIAF personnel in various MRO-related trades. 4) More than 120. 5) What for? The ANSF are quite capable of handling matters. All they need is continued training support & hardware supplies.

The on-going FICCI-sponsored seminar brought bout some interesting points:

1) The Scorpene SSKs will indeed be armed with Black Shark torpedoes.
2) The 8 MCMVs to be built by GSL will be to the design of the RoK’s Kangnam Corp. Contractual negotiations are now underway. The anti-mine ROVs will come from France’s ECA.
3) The RAN-40L radar for IAC-1 has already arrived at CSL for installation.
4) IAC-2 will have a 3-shaft propeller system for increased stability. For developing such a system, DCNS is most likely to be roped in as design consultant for this work only.
5) The DRDO’s Akaashdeep aerostat has officially been dumped as a ‘dead-end dud’. Now, the DRDO is procuring an initial 12 aerostats from Russia’s ROSAEROSYSTEMS through its Indian agent SKIL owned by Nikhil Gandhi. These aerostats will be equipped with both EL/M-2083 MPRs as well as long-range optronic sensors.
6) The IN urgently wants TWIN-ENGINED LUHs since HAL has stopped providing product-support for the SA.316B Alouette III/Chetak helicopters.
7) Ravinder Rishi (made infamous by the TATRA-BEML gaff) passed away a few weeks ago.
8) YEOMAN Marine Services Pvt Ltd, the agent for providing product-support for INS Vikramaditya & also the agent for the DSAR ordered from James Fisher Defence, is in fact the Nandas-owned CROWN Corp. It has gotten rid of the name Crown Corp in order to be reborn as YEOMAN.
9) 5 Indian companies have been asked to bid for supplying indigenous GPS receivers for various Indian end-users, govt-owned & private. The receiver must be able to receive C-code GPS coordinates from the Navstar, Glonass, Beidou & IRNSS constellations of GPS satellites. The high-accuracy Py-code signals will be accessible to only Indian govt agencies.

To R. SARATH KUMAR: I had uploaded data & photos of the Type 032 Qing-class SSK way back in 2011 or 2012 itself. AIP will be China-developed Stirling Engine.


Shantanu kumar said...

But sir, isn't the number of FICV vehicles we need almost 4000 that with then there is the T-72 replacement, I mean it's almost certain that IA will buy numbers in the future. Indian Navy has also declared the numbers it need. As for Air force I can agree things are not that clear.

Seriously sir. I am doing my PhD in robotics and I will be done in a year, once done I really want to go back and start working on a startup I was hoping I could eventually pivot into defence sector. Are things really so dire?

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To SHANTANU KUMAR: Having a reqmt on paper is totally different from COMMITTING to a reqmt with the guaranteed earmarked financial resources. Since the previous two decade, this has not been happening. That's why the T-71M1s could not be subjected through mid-life upgrades & even the first 310 T-90S MBTs are overdue for a mid-life upgrade. The first P-15 DDG, commissioned in 1997, should have undergone a mid-life refit in 2010, but that has yet to take place. There's just no commitment from the Union MoF under any government for assured funds for even a 5-Year Defence Plan, I repeat again. Kindly go & ascertain the facts for yourself by examining & reading all the Govt of India gazettes regarding 5-Year Defence Plans. Defence Ministers everytime have always said that funds will be made available as & when reqd, but no one has firmly kept such promises, especially for guaranteed funding for a 5-year period. Startups in the military-industrial sector will always fail in an environment that exists in India. Innovation is looked down upon & instead band-aid-type improvisation is encouraged at the institutional-level.

vishakh said...


1) PAC 4 Design is currently being based upon David Sling system of Israel .. Is it not good to develop S400 capability missile on same grounds as Barak Missile as well >>>??

2) Israel India has same need for long range defence and David sling with capability to target cruise missile and Mach 3 missile could allow areal defence in line with S400 , with expected development time of 5 years....

Siddharth said...

Prasun da,

News published about LCA. Its just a fan boy story or have any some credibility. If latter is true, are they want LIFT version of LCA.

I remember once you said Srilanka will rather induct IAI Kfir aircraft (during JF-17 selling drama)

Arpit Kanodia said...

Sir, your view on this

I dying from laugh that how China digging its own grave.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To VISHAKH: Logically, since India & Israel have collaborated to develop the Barak-2/Barak-8 family of LR-SAMs, then this collaboration should be taken to the next step to develop RMD systems. Option-2 is to acquire the THAAD. The 3rd & least preferable option is to opt for a TMD system that will be an advanced derivative of the S-400 LR-SAM but which is still years away from being fully developed.

To SIDDHARTH: Such desi news-reports only invite laughs & ridicule. For instance:

1) The two countries are interested in the current version of the Tejas and not the upgraded one which will be rolled out later. Then come the contradictory statements like "While there is an interest which has been shown (by other countries), let us get the product first to our own customer. The confidence that will come to others when our own Air Force flies it will be immense. So at first, we should at least meet the initial requirement of the IAF.”

2) HAL chairman T Suvarna Raju said the “current version is more than enough” for smaller nations.----------Ouch!!! India looking down on other nations & calling them 'small'? This is highly insulting, to say the very least.

3) "Two things that go in favour of the Tejas are its lower cost and flying ability."-------So, has anyone spelt out the exact per-unit acquisition cost of the Tejas Mk.1? Exactly how has it been worked out & based on what parameters? What is its direct operating cost? What is the cost of its reqd maintenance man-hours per flying hour? What is its specified airframe life? Does it have a pre-planned product improvement roadmap as part of its mid-life upgrade? These are the questions that every prospective customer will ask during the first marketing presentation & no convincing answers are forthcoming, then it's time to pack-up & leave.

To ARPIT KANODIA: LoLz! You will recall that in the book CHINA-PAKISTAN AXIS there was a quotation of a statement made by a Pakistani to a Chinese analyst, saying that "China knows everything about Pakistan, except for Islam". Now China will have to learn the hard way that the Uighurs too have had civilisational links with India for hundreds of years & just some 3 years ago you may recall that two Uighurs from Xinjiang were apprehended in Ladakh after corring over by foot through bthe Karakoram Pass past DBO & when they were questioned they said that they were fans of Shah Rukh Khan & that they came all the way just to meet him! Had it not been for Pandit Chacha Nehru (from whom there was not even a whimper in 1949 when China annexed Xinjiang & closed down the Indian Trade Office in Kasghar), by now India would have enjoyed far far more goodwill with the now-hapless Uighurs.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To ARPIT KANODIA: This is even better, something that I had explained last night:

The more important lesson is this: United Nations resolutions, or fancy diplomatic moves aren’t going to make India more secure. New Delhi needs to focus on growing the country’s counter-terrorism capacity and building smart alliances with countries facing the same enemies. India could, for example, significantly enhance its counter-terrorism cooperation with Afghanistan, now besieged with by the Taliban — providing Kabul with the guns and cash it needs to hit back. Leverage and capacity win wars—not words.

Shantanu kumar said...

That's really sad, I really wanted to work on some real R&D in India. If I were to work on any start up, what would be the fields you think that could be a safe bet.


Prasun Da,

My question is related to startups/SMEs in the defense sector since you replied to a query from a fellow poster:

You said that "Startups in the military-industrial sector will always fail in an environment that exists in India. Innovation is looked down upon & instead band-aid-type improvisation is encouraged at the institutional-level."

(1) As you had mentioned earlier AIP & Autonomous Underwater Vehicle that L&T has showcased in DefExpo 2016 were developed in-house by a consortium of companies & DRDO labs, led by L & T as the prime contractor. So how are these companies making profit?

(2) MoD has announced the introduction of a new category Indian Designed, Developed and Manufactured (IDDM) which will be accorded precedence over all existing categories in the DPP. Doesn't this mean that innovation is being encouraged by GOI?



Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To SHANTANU KUMAR: Try DARPA of the US. As a fall-back option you can always offer your services to the DRDO.

To SUJOY MAJUMDAR: 1) They're making profits from other business sectors. As for L & T's investment in AIP-related technologies, it is focussing on making commercially viable spinoff systems like powerplants for automobiles & trucks, plus tactical comms systems. The same with TATA Power SED. None of them are interested in AIPs for submarines. 2) Nope. This category is meant for only those systems/items that cannot be imported from anywhere due to national security reasons, such as Py-code hand-held GPS receivers for military applications, passive surveillance systems/radar fingerprinting systems, & certain automotive systems. But then again arises the question: how can any SME begin to innovate & offer solutions when the enabling financial back-ups like assured R & D/procurement funding for even a five-year period is not guaranteed? It ALWAYS WITHOUT FAIL boils down to the money factor. Without iron-clad assured funding for a finite period of time (no less than 5 years), only a fool will step forward & stick his/her neck out & borrow money from lending institutions, only to end up in the red & have severe headaches.

The ONLY SOLUTION, instead of muddling through like almost everyone is, is to create the non-lapsable defence modernisation fund so that any unspent allocations of the MoD can be ploughed back into this fund (instead of being surrendered to the Union MoF) & allow them to accumulate year-after-year, so that this very fund can be used to finance medium-term & long-term military R & D projects.


Thank You Prasun Da.

Got to say, hats off to your such outstanding knowledge of defense matters. I hope policy makers too visit your blog as regularly as I do & gain some valuable lesson.
Right now everything is opaque. Apparently IAF has come up with a Make in India Roadmap but won't make it public. Says a lot.

Thanks again

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To SUJOY MAJUMDAR: VMT. But I must say that all these so-called roadmaps are not exactly roadmaps, but merely listings of what kind of hardware requires indigenisation. A roadmap is something that spells out the methodology of how to go about the entire process, especially the project financing part. Even yesterday the IN officials were imploring the industry to form JVs to develop armaments like 127mm guns. When I asked why the need for 127mm cannons when there existed a chance to rationalise barrel diameters & calibres to 155mm & 52-cal so that commonality can be achieved with the Army's future 155mm/52-cal howitzers, no answers were forthcoming & there was pin-drop silence from both the panelists & the audience. That itself should tell one enough about the IN being risk-averse & therefore preferring to go with proven 127mm main guns, instead of really encouraging product innovation.

Similarly, when I suggested why can't the 12.7mm RCWS for the Arjun Mk.2 MBT be modified into a networked naval weapons mount in such a way that up to three such RCWS can be remotely-controlled from a single central console (which will be able to view the thermal imagery of all targetted small vessels in a single PAMLCD screen), again there was pin-drop silence! Instead, the urge is to import even such elementary such solutions. Inference: the IN's WESSE, which prides itself on integrating combat management systems for warships, lacks the imagination for doing a far simpler systems integration/networking job.

These are all first-hand proofs of prevailing regressive mindsets. So in the end, what kind of desi R & D are we really talking about?

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To ARPIT KANODIA: More Indian citizens are soon likely to be dubbed as R & AW operatives inside Pakistan. Here's the list:

And here's what this is all about:

Around 40 Indian nationals has been brought and taken back at a time under official protocol, on the name of engineering consultancy in Ramzan Sugar Mills. These Indian citizens have been working and still are working at Sharif family's Sugar Mills at Chiniot, Ghotki, Rahimyar Khan and Faisalabad in addition to the company's head office in Lahore. The record of Ramzan Sugar Mills shows that some 40 Indian national consultant’s services were hired. Out of 40, some 14 had often gone back to India while remaining 26 Indian nationals are still working in the sugar mills. The visas of these Indian nationals were exempted from police vetting before issuance. According to records confiscated from Ramzan Sugar Mills, the following Indian nationals were included. They are as Shiradar, Siri Naurus Rawala, Bala Sabrimenon, Siri Nawason, Seva Kamar Sankaran, Mathlay Nagara Khan, Seerash Roa, Datla Rattan Kar, Desh Raj, Guntumdo Vanca Tush, Moro Gehsan Najiswaran Easati, Saif-u-llah, Abdul Jabbar, Cheka aurwin, Sehiv Deputy Ranjan, Samo Lapali Najiswaran, Lukshman, Baskar Babu, Rajash Gopal, Matho Kamaran Naga Raj, Khan Muhammad Zafar,Perveen kamar Pichi Sozal Purbo, Bala Goru Sundrajan and M D Ansar. Of these, two of them were R & AW agents and were arrested based on the intelligence shared by Jadhav. In a factsheet, Ramzan Sugar Mills said that some Indians were working at the sugar mills but till date no one from security institutions has contacted them or their company of any development neither the consultants. “All of the workers were issued visas by Pakistani High Commission in New Delhi after due security checks from relevant agencies since they first started working in Pakistan,” the statement said. Revealing more details of Indians working in Pakistan, it said that there are 4,000+ Indians working in Pakistan in different industries and sectors. Jehangir Tareen of the PTI political party introduced this Indian consultancy company in Pakistan in 2013 and put up 2 plants with their engineering support in United Sugar mills and Gothki Sugar Mills. In 2014 another sugar mill called RYK put up a plant with the same company. In 2015 we put up the same plant and ours is 100% Chinese equipment in consultancy services with the same company.”

What must also be noted is that if Kulbhushan Yadhav's dhow was seized in the high seas by Pakistan in an act of state-sponsored piracy, then logically all the crew-members of this 3,500-tonne dhow are also under detention in Pakistan & could well be presented as R & AW operatives as well.

Shantanu kumar said...

Sir, your responses are not very encouraging for me :D. I will find a way, I always have, maybe things will improve in the future. Anyways sir I wanted to know your opinion about chatter of Iron fist on Arjun? Is it going to happen?

Anup said...


After Rafale deal,For F-18 & Gripen door closed in India?

Anonymous said...


if u r really doing a purposeful PHD, by this time, you should be independent on your career path and the area you want to work if u r looking for a startup.
as it is not the case, you education is fit for an employee.

in west,
bachelors is where students are taught the subject
masters is where students explore things in a range of subjects and for thesis on one subject
Mphil and PHDs are just on a very small specific topic.

but in india, all the education comes to just reading books and spilling on exam paper.

if you are in PHD in west and still wanted to ask such a question, you are welcome to work in my fields in india.

joydeep ghosh said...


belated noboborsho first

a few querries

1. OIS Tech and Sagam signed deal to make AASM Hammer Bomb Guidance and Glide Kit in India, these are probably for triple ejector racks with light weight PGMs question is will they be just made for IAF for use with only combat Hawk/LCA mk1 or be used by LCA mk2/Rafales/Jaguar/Mirages as well and any chance they be exported

2. as India joins the US-Japan fish hook network will it imply that network will be extended into IOR/BoB/ArS and will India have to foot the bill

3. While you say India abandoned the Uighurs and Baloch after Independence, US/India joined hands to prop up the Tibetans in 1960s then US not only abandoned India but left Tibetans at mercy of Chinese for the sake of saving few US$s via cheap labor. My take is if China dangles similar carrot, US will again dump India, your view

4. The 9/11 case where people want KSA as party to compensate has meant KSA is angry, it threatens to dump US debt and properties worth US$750 billion, is it a KSA bluff or will it happen

5. You say once Rafale arrives the reengined Jagaurs will be used as tactical interdictors, but what after 2035 since Jagaurs will have to be retired, it can be said Rafales will take over their role, but thats too much pressure on Rafale fleet

6. Prasun da after going through various reports of short wars under nuclear overhang to be fought by IA in future through IBGs with Pak, i figured a few thrust areas (correct if wrong) in future

1. downhill siachen towards Gilgit/Balistan
2. across kargil into Skardu
3. recapture Haji Pir and cut uri poonch distance from 220+ km to 40+km
4. across IB/WB into CJC (chenab Jhelum corridor)
5. across Punjab over Shakargarh bulge and/or lahore
6. across Sriganganagar
7. from south Jaisalmer into south Sindh
8. across rann of lutch towards sir creek

It looks good to fight against Pak but what about China, surely such thrust areas and IBG formations are needed in case of short war against China, such as

1. arunchal- from tawang & eastern areas near the brahmaputra hairpin bend (due to possibility of obstruction of water)
2.north & eastern sikkim towards lasha to create a buffer for Tibetans
3.across uttarakhand & himanchal into central tibet
4. across Chushul, Nyoma, DBO into west tibet

but do we have capability, i think corps 17 will be overstretched for that

7. you always say a plan exist to denuclearize Pak, if & when it mobilized what will India do and i dont think China will ever sit that out; your view

8. who is making the american style shotguns for police forces of India, nepal had been using them since long now i see indian police also using them

9. the deaths at handwara were unnecessary i think, instead of live bullets why doesnt CAPF/IA/JKP use rubber bullets

thanks & apologies for such long post

Joydeep Ghosh

lachit said...


I had always meant to ask this question but never got around to it.

can a salvo of brahmos fired operate in a wolve pack mode ?
like in the Granit P 700 missile where in the missiles at launch would have a radar picture of the target via satellite or from other platforms.
They know where the target is roughly and they know where they are launched from so all 3-12 missiles will fly at medium height to maximise range. When they approach the radar horizon of the target all but one will drop down to remain unseen by the target and the one missile remaining high will scan the target and then drop down to fly with the other missiles.
after the missile itself identifies its target. then they line up like a wolf pack and start "hunting" the target.
so ultimately the missiles themselves decided which of them will attack the target, and how.

simply stated missiles in the "wolf pack" would distribute a number of targets among themselves, rank targets in order of importance, and choose their attack tactics etc etc.

is it implemented in brahmos ?

पीयूष दास said...

Australian federal government is preparing to announce the successful bidder for Australia's new fleet of submarines next week. It has all but eliminated the Japanese bid to build a fleet of 12 submarines to replace the Royal Australian Navy's ageing Collins Class subs.
So much for much hyped soryu class...

Shantanu kumar said...

Anon 2:53 PM: Did I ask for your advice, and yes I did my PhD in a US institute; one the best ; in robot learning. I have published in ICRA and AAAI. And I am pretty sure you have no fucking idea about either of them.

And you don't need to tell me how to plan my career, who to take advice from and what to do in my life. It's been going good so far because of my own judgement.

As far as why am I asking him these questions, because again I don't want to build a system, "made by scientist for scientist", and till this date I am just a mathematician, with experience in theoretical research, not someone who can understand the needs of the military. I have no idea what kind of problems the military have, how can I hope to solve them.

I have no idea how the administration in India works. As a matter of fact I don't even know if they are serious about creating defence startups in India. You see I am not a dumbass to jump into a business without knowing how things work in the field , and with almost 1.5 years left in my graduation, I am taking a early start by a little online surveying.

As for your fields why don't you go take your head out of your ass and use it contents as manure, cause it looks like it's made of grade 1 shit. Cheerio.

Shantanu kumar said...

Techkoolie :D,huh :D..... Amusing..... Looks like you have some kind of inferiority complex to kids who work in Tech companies. did someone took your girlfriend?

I am not the one who is thinking I know everything, it's you who is doing that. For my leadership skills, yeah you are working in my lab right, again speaking without knowing anything :D.

I never claimed I know everything in fact I know my capabilities perfectly that is why I am not claiming "oh I can build missiles". I have no experience with rockets and little experience in writing controls for such systems. I don't know how to build new sensors, I can to sensor data fusion though, and I can understand why a sensor has limitations. I can easily do research on Autonomous vehicles, because it's my field. Crux of the story is: I have done research, I understand research and I know what kind of people are needed to build a system. I have some queries and I am here asking them to the gentleman who runs this blog.

You on the other hand, are desperately trying to get my attention by crying like a bitch. When I snubbed you instead of going away you continued to draw me into this irrelevant argument; and in most likelihood will continue to do so; without even knowing when you have become unwanted in a conversation. Are you such a attention seeker in real life too?

And by the way DARPA is grant agency, it does little research on it's own and doesn't function like DRDO. It gives grants to researchers that are working on projects that have Defence and military significance in universities. My research is funded by a grant given to my advisor by DARPA. I wrote a new grant for him in December for the new students that will come up in our lab. It also went through. So yeah learn about things not just lap up the words spoken by Prasun Da, and vomit them to make yourself seem like you understand.

Now please continue your juvenile name calling in the hope to attract some attention and to give yourself some satisfaction, cause you couldn't save your nose from getting burned after you put it in other people's affairs.

Vikram Guha said...

Prasun Da,

In this International Seminar on 'Make in India' Paradigm: Roadmap for a Future Ready Naval Force that you attended, can you please share some important questions related to the Indian Navy/Coast Guard that you had asked the panel, apart from any other important question that was raised by others & subsequently answered?

Thanks & Regards,

Jay Bhanushali said...


Another prediction of yours starting to come true, Taiwan's Asus plans to make India its Home Base in collaboration with Foxconn!!

Taiwan & Japan are working hard to make sure China isn't able to dominate Asia and supporting India to become capable enough to balance the chinese

Sudipta Bhattacharjee said...

Dear Shantanu Kumar, I think u follow this blog not vice versa..... and as for theoritical part .... one of the greatest theorist ever born concluded .....


U just proved the above equation true

Sudipta Bhattacharjee said...

Mr Shantanu kumar for a safe bet go and bet on TESLA shares .... if u are really a Passionate phd then u would have found some inspiration by now .... not safe betting ....and your questions and rude arrogant comments makes me smell a reporter harvesting points and quotes.... good luck

Jay Bhanushali said...

Love it when everyone starts fighting for no good reason.

@ Shantanu, Dude if you want a settled life with $100-200k pa and a career in research then don't come back. India has nothing to offer.

But if you want to be your own boss then India is the place to be. it has its fair share of risks but if things work out then the rewards are also huge.

Other things to consider are marriage, if wife ready to go to india, how financially secure you are right out of college, (student debt),
fall back plan if things don't work out....

Make a cold calculated decision.

This is not the kind of thing one discusses on defence blogs

All the best

Shantanu kumar said...

Sudipita Bhattacharjee: Good luck to you too good, sir. I am no reporter, and I am not asking anyone to follow me, I just wanted to ask a question and get a answer from prasun da, I don't care what you think of me, never did, never will. It's not personal, it's just that I like qualified criticism The guy has deleted the comment that prompted my response, otherwise I have no interested in even talking to him.

I am again clarifying was just asking Prasun sir, questions about what would be the scopes for defence startups in India. Am I rude to ask this question? How can I know the situation of a industry without taking advice? I qualified myself as I wanted him to understand the background I came from. He gave a very informed answer that due to not commitment of funds, investors shrug defence sector. He gave me his view, which I accepted gratefully, I don't understand what other people have to do with it.

Along comes a guy who anonymously starts by telling me that I am not a good PhD student as I don't know about a field that I haven't worked in?
How I am rude? Who asked the anonymous guy to tell me what should I do? Who judged me fit to work in his farms ? just because I wanted the advice of this blog? Like many other I must say. I gave him the fitting reply he deserved, judge me all you want for it, I hardly care.

As for safe bets, as I said I will find a way, I have always found ways. remember "And, when you want something, all the universe conspires in helping you to achieve it". I don't need to talk about all my thoughts and plans in this blog.

madforexbii said...

So You mean AI algorithms :P

madforexbii said...

Chillax Mr.Gore.
Incidentaly i happenned upon one of your articles "Associative Patterns of Web Browsing Behavior". BTW what's your current research field to be precise ? Like mine's "Brain-Computer Interface" & "Free Space Optics". Pretty much amateur thpugh.

Shantanu kumar said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Shantanu kumar said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Shantanu kumar said...

Do you think I am using my real name, it's a nom de guerre.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To ANUP: Do you have any doubts about that?

To LACHIT: Yes, it can be, but against what? The P-700 Granit & P-800 Yakhont were both developed for launch from giant SSGNs so that a mixture of SSGN-launched, Tu-22M2-launched & warships-launched supersonic could TOGETHER launch such supersonic ASCMs in a synchronized manner against US Navy carrier battle-groups. This is because according to the Soviet/Russian Navy, a total of 24 such ASCMs launched simultaneously is what it takes to overwhelm the defences of a USN carrier battle-group & cause meaningful destruction. I don’t see the IN ever getting involved in such battles for the foreseeable future.

To JAY BHANUSHALI: VMT. There will be more such entrants in the comi8ng months, rest assured. As for fighting for no reason, I presume you’re referring to needless ‘cockfights’ (LoLz!). BTW, India apparently had a new RM on April 15, if the PIB’s photo-caption is to be believed:

The Union Minister for Finance, Corporate Affairs and Defence, Shri Arun Jaitley meeting the President of World Bank Group, Dr. Jim Yong Kim, in Washington DC on April 15, 2016. CNR:81290 Photo ID :79645

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To VIKRAM GUHA: It was more of a marketing affair, because the event sponsorer was FICCI. Had the sponsorer been the IN, then matters would have been different. The MoD’s Joint Secretary for Warshipbuilding did not contribute a soundbyte & was a passive observant throughout, since that official obviously didn’t possess any domain expertise on such subjects. In any case, listed below are various sessions & presentations:

Session 1 Missiles and Gun Systems for a Future Ready Naval Force
The Navy Perspective RAdm Dinesh K Tripathi, NM Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Policy & Plans), Indian Navy
Perspectives on Missiles (Airframe and Engines) Mr. Bill Forsberg, SAAB
Perspective on Missiles (Systems and Controls) Dr A. Bashir, Tata Power SED
Perspective on Naval Guns (Systems and Propellant) Mr Rajesh Kohli, BHEL

Session 2 Propulsion & Power Generation
The Navy Perspective – Challenges & Opportunities RAdm K M Deshmukh, VSM Assistant Chief of Material (Dockyards & Refits)
National Competence in Marine Gas Turbine Propulsion Cdr CHV Sudhakar Gas Turbine Testing and Tuning Team (Vishakapatnam), Indian Navy
Diesel Power Plants Mr. Sanjay Kr. Mujumdar, KOEL
National Competence in Marine Propulsion – The Road Ahead Cdr M S Gopinathan and Cdr Manish Singh, Indian Navy

Session 3 Torpedo and Directed Energy Weapons
The Navy Perspective RAdm O P S Rana, VSM Director General of Naval Armament Inspection, Indian Navy
Perspective on Torpedoes (Propulsion and Frame) Atlas Electronics
Perspective on Torpedoes (Homing and Systems) Raytheon
Perspective on Torpedoes (Homing and Systems) Mr Abraham Verghese,NSTL
Perspective on Directed Energy Weapons Mr V B Patil, LASTEC

Session 4 Surveillance and Detection Systems
The Navy Perspective: Future Networks Warfare Concept RAdm S J Singh, NM Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Communication Space Network Centric Operations)
AEGIS Weapon Systems – Today and Tomorrow Mr Pete Buckley, Lockheed Martin
Advances in Space based surveillance & technologies maritime applications Mr S. Arunan , Director ISRO
Electronic Support Measures Mr Iqbal Singh, VEM Technologies
Network Centric Naval Warfare Mr Nikas Ghikas, Interoperability Systems International S.A.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

Session 5 Futuristic Trends in Propulsion and Power Generation Technologies – Electric & Nuclear
The Navy Perspective on Nuclear Propulsion Captain Vikram Bora Directorate of Naval Design (Submarine Design Group)
The Navy Perspective on Full Electric Propulsion Captain Lavneesh Dhawan Directorate of Marine Engineering
Integrated Electric Propulsion and Power Generation for ships Mr. Ravindra S Mahajan, L&T EAIC
Advanced Propulsion Technologies for Electric Ship Architecture Mr Sanjeev Kakkar, GE Aviation Military Systems
Propulsion systems for Aircraft Carrier Admiral Bertrand Aubriat, M/s DCNS

Session 6 Naval Aviation Futures
The Navy Perspective RAdm P G Pynumootil, NM, Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Air)
Air Early Warning & Control Technologies Cmde G Sharma (Retd.), Northrop Grumman
Future trends in Naval Multi Role Helicopters Airbus Group
Emerging Aero Engine Technologies Mr Sasikumar Muthusamy, Rolls-Royce
Future trends in Naval Helicopters Mr. Konovalov Oleg, Russian Helicopters

Session 7 Submarine Technologies
The Navy Perspective RAdm Mohit Gupta, Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Submarine)
Future Submarine Vessel Design and MaterialsCmde Mukesh Bhargawa, L&T
Future Submarine platforms and technologies–Mr Andreas Grunickle, Thyssnkrupp Marine Systems India Pvt ltd(TKMS)
AIP Technologies/ Stored Energy Devices Dr. S B Singh, NMRL
Sonars for Submarines Atlas Electroniks

Session 8 Autonomous Vehicles for Naval Applications
The Navy Perspective RAdm Srinivas Kanugo, VSM, Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (Air Material)
Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles Dr Manu Koruula, NSTL
Naval Targets (Drone Kits) Mr. Michael Berg, SAAB
Maritime UAV & Helicopter payloads Mr Dmitry Bernadiner, DEFSYS Solutions Pvt Ltd
Unmanned Surface/ Under Water Craft Rafael

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

Session 9 Coastal Surveillance and Response Systems and Platforms
The Navy Perspective VAdm Anil Kumar Chawla, AVSM, NM, VSM Director General Naval Operations
The Coast Guard Perspective
IG V S R Murthy, PTM, TM Deputy Director General (Operations & Coastal Security), Indian Coast Guard
Coastal Surveillance Radar Technologies (HF SWR) Raytheon
Coastal Surveillance Beyond the Horizon – The Challenge Mr Ben-Zion Agam, ELTA Systems Limited
Fast Interceptor Craft Cdr K S Nathan (Retd.), L&T

Session 10 Panel Discussion on Future of Defence Shipbuilding in India
Presentation on Evolution of Japanese Shipbuilding and Lessons for India RAdm S Y Shrikhande, Flag Officer Doctrine and Concepts
Presentation by Mr Bernard Buisson, M/s DCNS
Presentation on Conceptual Model of Advanced Aircraft Carrier VAdm Vladimir V Pepelyaev, Krylov State Research Centre
Presentation on Problems and Panacea for Indian Warship building for ‘Make in India’ Perspective Cmde Bhupesh Tater, Assistant General Manager (Material), Naval Dockyard (Mumbai)
Panel Discussion by CMDs and Business Heads of MDL, L&T, Reliance Defence Limited, TIMBLO Shipyard, SHOFT Shipyard and PDND (SSG)
Presentation of views (5 min) on future of Indian Shipbuilding by panellists on one of the following aspects
Desired enablers for boost to Shipbuilding
Integration of equipment / weapon manufacturers with Shipbuilding
Basis of Strategic partnerships – Economics, Welfare, Capacity or Capability?
Requirements for export orientation of Indian Shipbuilding industry

madforexbii said...


rad said...

to Shantanu Kumar
Young man ,
you have my sympathy and support as you are in the age of my children. May be if given a chance i would do the same thing you do .I guess you came out of carnegie Mellon . Keep it up. Dont get distracted by arseholes they are all jealous of you and your achievement and the fact that you are in the USA.
ONly in India you will be attacked for being bright and meritorious, here it pays to be poor and lazy. This is a classic example of the the kind of people who occupy top posts and make sure no one goes above them how ever meritorious . Literally i am shocked by fellow indians who have attacked you rather than help you .
My advice is stay in the US and do cutting edge research first in your line of work and make make a prototype of something and prove it , what ever sector either civilian or defense . Establish your self there first and then think of coming to India, as i dont think you will find the right atmosphere or the lab to do post doctoral research.
I appreciate your love to work for the country. THis is the same advice i wold have given to my children. BE strong.

R. Sarath Kumar said...

Sir, what's going on with the Brazil political crisis? Some say the US is pulling the strings from behind to potentially weaken the BRICS.

Thank you Sir,
Sarath Kumar R.

Kapil said...

Why is India negotiating for S-400 when Russia is ready to deploy the more powerful S-500 and what does Fincantieri's collaboration means for P-17A FFG? Will they provide any technology from its FREMM mutirole frigate?


if any1 coming to this blog, is really doing some service to our armed forces and there by to the nation selflessly it is prasun , all others including me come here due to some kind of affinity to the nation, but in itself that doesn't serve any purpose.

techoolie (santanu), I suggest you one thing.

if you really want to help india, make huge money through your job and help some children in india through setting a neat academy in your area, even if it is digital, as india dont have bright teachers. i got huge stuff digitally and i am trying to make some money towards that. a simple plan.. i already collected huge digital stuff that amounts to 20 TB, all superb material taught by westerner professors, and I am planning to construct 1 classroom in my village, with huge screen. all the setup would cost 10 lakh as it is a village( site/tiled classroom, chairs, screen, computer, projector, notebooks, pens, bunk beds, food and travel tickets to all the students to come to my village for 1 week or 10 days for intensive coaching in 1 subject (maths/physics/chemistry/english/stats/ IT networking just all fundamentals) at a time. but the only issue is all these material is in english. and that too with western style where all my people are studying in my mother tongue. So i need to teach them first english for 2 years which I am planning next year.

i feel this is a achievable and is real and is needed and is time bound. any other shit makes me bad...real bad..and am already bald..and bold...

you projected yourself like arogyasamy paulraj which makes to feel like punching you.. i did..


dipan chakraborty said...

Thanks for answering prasun sir m asking because90% of wht drdo developed ended up as technology demonstrator. And look at the ruskies inspite of having a formidable arsenal of road mobile ICBM they are spending millions developing liquid fueled Sarmat to replace ss-18 and who I'll develop special wheeled vehicle like MZKT 79221 to tow the missile? Your comments. Plz

Anonymous said...

Prasun, I have been an ardent follower of your blog for about a year now. However, lately, it appears that your blog has been hijacked by a few "Babas" who have turned this into a career counseling portal. I'd request you to intervene and stop this narcissistic masturbation, had enough.

Jon said...

Just how good is the Indian armys ability to deal with a tactical nuclear attack on it?

Jon said...

All of Pakistan's Grandiose plans seem to be biting dust

R. Sarath Kumar said...

Also, sir, is it true that the Rafale deal includes the purchase of Meteor AAMs and SCALP cruise missiles?

Thank you,
Sarath Kumar R.

Jon said...

Another great article from Christine fair. Hope US policy makers move towards her line of thinking

Jay Bhanushali said...

@ Prasun

Lolz... PIB has legendary staff and it reminds citizens of its greatness at regular intervals.

RAT said...

Hi Prasun,

Thanks for the Informative and Wonderful post once again I have a question regarding recent events of China landing a military aircraft on disputed islands and describing it as a humanitarian issue what do you think will be the response from US, Japan and others? What will be the benefits for India if any from the situation? Please reply.

RAT said...

Good initiative wrong approach. Don't Just teach English to the villagers also please learn the local language it will help you immensely while explaining complex terms to them when playing the media and answering questions related. As the Villagers speak their local language its easy for them to recall and imply what is learned its human psychology to recall and relate to stuff in language mastered initially rest is with you all the best with your work.

Soubhagya said...

Dear Prasun,

If India purchases Rafael by 60000 crore rupees, then will the aircrafts quality be compromised??? Your view please.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To SOUBHAGYA: Why should it be so? Do you think public-listed OEMs with a global reputation to protect, like Dassault Aviation, THALES, SNECMA Moteurs, Intertechnique, Alkan, MBDA etc etc, ball have a 'baniya' mentality/mindset like many in South Asia? If that is how you perceive the French to be, then I can only offer my condolences about your 'Durbhagya'.

In any case, better not to go off on a tangent on nonsensical issues/fears, & better to focus on matters that will tax the mind, such as this:

Shantanu kumar said...

Anon : Good input... Now F*** off.....

Prasun sir: Is there any chance of seeing Iron fist on Arjun?? Is is possible to install such a system on FICV?

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To SHANTANU KUMAR: Firstly, let me answer your previous query about why industrial R & D in India is not yet poised for liftoff. Firstly, there's the absence of an R & D culture for the past 400 years. Thus, India missed both the Industrial Revolution 3 centureis ago & the Information/Communications Technology (ICT) Revolution 3 decades ago. Consequently, the standard Indian mindset is not geared towards inventing anything new that no one else has before, but is always pre-occupied with trying to master what someone else has already discovered & commercialised. In other words, the Indian mindset is programmed to forever try to play catch-up. The real, genuine achievements of the DRDO, therefore, lie in the area of life sciences, especially when applications of indigenous ayurvedic solutions are made use of. In all other spheres of activity, the DRDO is involved only with mastering what others have done, & trying to back-engineer or re-engineer them. Therefore, strictly speaking, this ain't R & D of any form or type. One must always analyse such issues dispassionately & objectively in order to derive the correct lessons. Thinking from the heart & getting emotional only makes the situation/predicament worse. To give you an idea of just how ignorant an average Indian is about the primacy of a technological achievement (let alone alone R & D), just view this video-clip that emerged 48 hours ago about ISRO having developed an artificial pump for the human heart:

You can clearly see how flippant the interviewer is, & instead of showing any degree of seriousness, he is shamelessly making jokes about the achievement & having a laugh!!! What does such an attitude indicate to you?

As for APS, so far only the T-90S has been identified as requiring such a fitment. In future perhaps the reqt will be extended to cover the Arjun Mk.1/2 MBTs & the FICVs.

Anonymous said...

Enjoy reading these:

look who else is supporting your theory:


Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To G: The cargo-handling cranes are all rustic & are in urgent need of repair. Watch this:

Chinese in Gwadar:

And read these:

As for these:

A period of drift is giving way to a phase of chill and hostility. If the legacy of the UPA rule was that when Prime Minister Manmohan Singh left office in 2014, India had come breathtakingly closer than ever to settling its disputes with China, thanks to his sustained efforts to build trust and mutual confidence, that wonderful legacy has been squandered away by Modi.--------------------small wonder this 'chill & hostility' has resulted in a sharp dip in the number of annual LAC transgressions carried out by the PLA over the past 12 months. Do read this:

The Modi government is crossing the ‘red line’. The sum total of India’s differences and disputes with China simply does not add up as justification to identify openly with a longstanding CIA project to foment unrest in China’s Xinjiang region and to destabilise that country.----------------------------LoLz! China had crossed the RED LINE more than 2 years ago when Indian counter-intelligence agencies found out that up to 80 Buddhist monasteries stretching from Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, all the way to Sikkim had been penetrated by China's PSB agents who were trying to buy off the Tibetan exiles while at the same time trying to entrap the Karmapa with allegations of money laundering!

Shantanu kumar said...

Sir: is the APS on T-90 a soft kill or hard kill system? And thanks, I understand Indian R&D has a mediocrity problem, I was starkly reminded of it when I saw DRDO UGV. The university research is not much better too, but I just hope that our generation can try to bring some change. Thanks for answering these questions.

Also sir: What is the "real" plan on AURA, I mean what do you think would really happen. Also what is navy thinking about AUVs??

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To SHANTANU KUMAR: Every APS is a hard-kill system involving kinetic interception. AURA is more than a decade away from rollout. Till today even the Rustom-1 UAV, which was promised for delivery way back in 2013, has yet to undergo user-trials. IN is going for imported AUVs from ECA of France. The AUV from the DRDO/NSTL is a joke. It has neither an on-board sonar sensor nor are there any remotely-operated robotic arms. Utter waste of precious financial resources.

madforexbii said...

Prasun da,
Had a read of the "TROUBLES, THEY COME IN BATTALIONS"...... Felt as if the writer has been consciously/subconsciously trying to sell a mindset of somewhat ill conceived threats along with a few valid points though.
As is
1) First of all he's hell bent upon thinking that PLAAF's supposed advances in EW,LO/VLO are all world class which is all but laughable. Yeah they have advanced a lot, so much more than us. But to call it world class is a overstatement.
2) A lot of conspiracy theories like the El/M-2052 being covertly stolen by PRC, IAF distancing itself from LCA mk.2, FGFA being scrapped.... etc etc were used as if verified fundamental points while establishing outcomes.
3) Some lies were sold like J-10 is a successful modern fourth generation fighter, Derby doesn't have a datalink,AA-12's max kill ranges are lesser than those of PL-12 etc etc....J-10 variants are indeed potent, but the high rate of accidents tell a different story of an dangerous airframe with unreliable critical subsystems. Derby has only started flight tests and operational deployment is a year away @least. Besides i've not seen a modern BVRAAM lacking data links anywhere. On PL-12 I actually have a question for you sir. Have it been equipped with an AESA seeker???
4) The PAF will never be able to muster funds for procuring 100+ late model F-16s, 150-200 J-10 variants in upcoming 10yrs. It's only new entrant will probably only be some double digit FC-31s along with the already being acquired JF-17s. As you say "Beggars can't be choosers".
5) LCA's fictional Mk.1 SOP 18 is actually the best choice both economically & technically compared to all other similar single engined solution s available to the IAF. Infact this platform is much more superior WRT JF-17s in terms of technical capabilities, ease of operations, platform safety & reliability. The only roadblock is ADA/DRDO's ability to pull it of in the allotted timeframe this time.
6) Jaguars are indeed capable performers after being upgraded. Equipped with AESAs they can effectively handle all CAS tasks & limited air interdiction missions as well for the next decade & half. So do the upgraded Mirages & Mig-29s as well.
7) Transformation of PLAAF from a lesser sophisticated 4K-5K airframes equipped force to a leaner & meaner 1.5K highly sophisticated airframes equipped force will take decades. The PRC can indeed manufacture fighters in large but the change in air warfare strategies/doctrines & the challenges in pilot optimization trainings will take a lot of time to be solved.
Cont. In next part

Shantanu kumar said...

Sir, I found two AUV projects one is the AUV-150 which looks cylindrical in shape, the other one is squarish which one is the one DRDO offered to the navy?
Pic1 :
Pic 2:

madforexbii said...

These were I think some of the shortcomings of the report which otherwise put into perspective a very saddening picture of IAF. With 6 squardrons of Mig-21 bisons & 5 squadrons of Mig-27s up for retirement in the coming 5 years will plug a wide hole in the IAF. The solution if not worked upon ASAP may simply spark off a disaster a blooming regional superpower like India will definitely try to avoid. Better to sort out the LCA & MMRCA fiasco now than to exercise repentance later.
But i definitely won't agree with the writer that only having comparable squardron numbers can save IAF. He seems to forget that the USAF has been constantly defeating airforces since the 90s with far fewer deployed fighters wrt adversaries. One can easily deny the PLAAF any oppertunity to mount air operations if only all of their Airbase runways were knocked out in the first phase of war with PGMs. Then the IAF will easily be able to destroy more enemy fighters on grounds without a fight than in risky aerial fights just like allied air ops in Iraq/Afghanistan/Libyan wars. For ensuring Air-Dominance the IAF will need robust ISTAR platforms, networked C³I structures, smart,accurate &survivable offensive weapons & delivery platforms as well as concrete self-defense systems to effectively repel counterattacks as a whole. So it would be childish to expect only an increase in airframes will serve the purpose. Instead it would be completely wise to cap the IAF with 42 squadrons or less of only high tech manned fighters with a large emphasis being given to UAV/UCAVs procurement, DEW weapons, Space based ISR assets, long range PGMs, LO/VLO techs etc etc R&D & procurement efforts with the money saved in above practice.

RAT said...

Hi Prasun,

I totally Agree with you on the R&D part and its not just defense or space sector its also other sectors as well. The word innovation here means copy pasting and re-branding with minor adjustments calling it an upgrade. What makes me feel bad is even the new generation that is passing out has the same mindset they just want quick bucks without much efforts (not that it wrong but the approach is). There can be an entire PhD paper on this but I would like to stop here. Thanks though for your blog and informative inputs.

madforexbii said...

The second one is more suiting to the images released by L&T in Defexpo. Isn't it???

Shantanu kumar said...

Sir: What about Adamya, is it in house L&T? Or is it the ECA AUV you talked about? Also Here is another image of what DRDO put up as AUV:

MAD: I think you are looking at the first one.

birbal said...

Good read guys..on DPP and LOTS more...

birbal said...

By the way lot's of INTERESTING names cropping up...Mad, Rat...:)

madforexbii said...

No. I was talking about the second image. The first one looks really odd. Seems like someone modified a torpedo.

Realist said...


While we regularly discuss the external threats that India is facing what about the internal threats that are far more challenging? Look at the large scale migration of people from states like BIHAR to every nook and corner of the country. This is causing tremendous amount of friction between locals and these migrants.

It's NOT that these all these Biharis are labourers, most don't get work for 9-10 months a year. More often than not they end up as hawkers. A vast majority of them take to crime both big and small.Which also explains why several businesses opt for illegal Bangladeshi labourers over Bihari & UP labourers.

Across India, from Delhi, Punjab,Gujarat, Mumbai,to Bangalore, Kolkata etc locals are feeling threatened by this huge influx of millions of Biharis,UP every year.

The Bihar government has failed to control their population miserably & to make matters worse these Hindi belt politicians are HINDI chauvinist who are out on a crusade to impose HINDI across the length & breadth of India.

Don't you think such unbridled flow of migrants from states like Bihar will cause severe internal strife in India in the years to come?

Vikram Guha said...

Prasun Da,

The state of affairs in West Bengal today. How turncoats are running the state. You will probably know better but this seems to be a nice article from Swapan Dasgupta


youngbengal said...

Be very cautious friends- some nasty porkis are trolling here in hope of drawing differences among friendly Indians.

Arpit Kanodia said...

Lol @youngbengal ISI doing this since 1947.

WakeUp said...

@ Realist
Are you high man?
The reality you seem to perceive is quiet the opposite of the truth.

Migrants from Bihar & UP are the most hard working employees in my company.
They work at a fraction of the salary compared to local workers, never ask to be paid extra for overtime, take leave just once a year and are extremely loyal to the company. Thats the reason i almost exclusively have UPites and Biharis in my company (around 100 out of 130).

This helps me stay competitive and keeps prices low.
This is true for allmost all my peer companies inspite of being based in Mumbai

If there were no migrant workers, inflation in metro cities would be twice the current rates.

To sum it up,
I would rather hire a guy from Bihar or UP than someone from my own community.

So get your head out of your ass and stop spreading falsehoods.

monkey said...

If J31, has stealthy features, does that not give it an advantage in air war against our SU-30s, because it will be unseen by them? I cant see porkies buying unless they test it against their awacs and find they cant see it. If awacs cant see it then figher aircraft radar wont see it at all.

@SSK, nice find by a real gentleman, who used to be our ambassador in Tehren. Only thing common is national interest. Iran doesnt want to lose China for trade or investments. It sees India as 3rd world and maybe too far away. They also dont want to lose Porkies, as they have the real muscle to hurt them and put a squeeze on all their dreams in the gulf.

Anonymous said...

keeping that aside, you must be robbing them of their wages for sure based on your comments...

Kashyap said...

US thinking about getting raptors back in production and also considering exports. Interesting times ahead

pm said...
prasun da aren't there any programes that exploit this swarm technique.each mini drone can be fitted with small explosive charges can be used to flush out hidden terrorists from their hiding points in urban environment.It can be useful except may be hostage situation.

AniOne said...

Just in, from Japan..........



First, many thanks for explaining to a fellow poster why R&D culture does not exist in India. Such explanations are rarely available in the Indian media. This probably explains why 10,000 students who graduate from IITs every year cannot make a difference. Vey content rich post of your's.

Second, every equipment procured by Indian Army require long term sustainment and one of the major aspect of sustainment is timely availability of spares. However, past experience indicates that the major cause of delay is

(1) Due to costing of an item ; and

(2) Lack of co-ordination between OEM/vendor and procurement agency in the Indian Army.

Given your vast experience how do you think these 2 issues can be resolved effectively?


MLA said...

Sir, would like to know your views on non-existent "Hindu" terror sham invented by UPA to protect LeT in Malegaon and Samjhauta blast cases. Shouldnt the govt arrest and prosecute Sonia Gandhi for compromising Indias security and demonising Hindu community? And Chidambaram's attempts to prevent cops to unmask Ishrat Jahan's real jihadi face.

Kumar said...


i just knew, you are pursuing your masters in robotics in hindustan deemed university in chennai. chill bro...

Shantanu kumar said...

Kumar: Not my real name ....

birbal said...

@ Sujoy Majumdar

" First, many thanks for explaining .......... Vey content rich post of your's."

Well Appreciated for GOOD work bro...

Anonymous said...

Dear Prasun Da,
I read a paper published by 2 DMRL Scientists. According to the paper it is said that ERA and composite armour is ineffective against FSAPDS penetrator. Can you please spot some light on it.

Sumanta said...

Prasun Da, looks like PRC has been paid by same coin :

your views please

pm said...
sir what is your opinion on this article.

Devopriyo said...

Can anyone tell me how many Arjun mk1 and Arjun mk2 have been ordered by the army. Somewhere in this forum I read a figure of 400?

Gessler said...


124 Arjun Mk-1 and 118 Mk-2 MBTs as far as I know.

Devopriyo said...

@ Gessler The First comment in this thread says 400?

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To DEVOPRIYO: The first comment doesn't 'say'. It 'asks'. The figures of GESSLER are correct as of now. Contracts for support vehicles like BLT-Arjun & Arjun ARV have yet to be placed.

To SUDIPTA: If they're ineffective, then I can only presume that all those worldwide that have developed such types of armour are either idiots or buffoons. Are they really? Or are those DMRL scientists failed to do an operations analysis of armoured warfare since the early 1980s to clinically ascertain whether or not such armouring solutions have been proven to be ineffective?

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To GESSLER: This will be yet another game-changer:

nag said...

An good read on china's geopolitical reality

R. Sarath Kumar said...

Sir, is it true that India is going to purchase SCALP cruise missile and Meteor BVRAAM as part of Rafale deal?

Thank you Sir,
Sarath Kumar R.

Soubhagya said...

Dear Prasun,

Thnx for providing telli's link; but the same mistake persists like Rafale jinx i.e. beyond 36 another fighter could be ordered, Tejas Mk 1A. Still awesome explanation by him about the state of iaf and the challenges it can face in the coming decade. Because you are here to give the right insight about the Indian armed forces I can't be "durbhagya, rather I was soubhagya, am soubhagya, and will remain soubhagya. Thnx again.

Anonymous said...

Dear Prasun,

Do you believe in Nostradamus predictions or it is a fraud to make money.

S.Senthil Kumar

R. Sarath Kumar said...

Also, sir I want to add one more question - will the IAF Rafales come with IRST or not? I'm asking because the FSO system on the latest tranche of French Air Force Rafales includes only a TV sensor.

Older batches had both TV and IRST.

Which version are we going to get?

Thank you Sir,
Sarath Kumar R.

Anonymous said...

Dear Prasun,

S.Senthil Kumar

Anonymous said...

Dear Prasun,

"NEW MIDDLE EAST" is Emerging.

In this context, how Indian Foreign policy is going to work.

Please comment.

S.Senthil Kumar

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To NAG: Watch this interesting unvestigative programme on how China's PSB works in Hongkong SAR:

Hong Kong's Missing Booksellers

To S SENTHIL KUMAR: Watc these:

What Really Happened in Yemen:

Political Islam:

nag said...

Dada Very interesting video and confirms what i wasreading in couple of days of.

Chineese internal ethinic gap widening as econimic rift widens between diffrent demographic reagion and they communist party is terrifed of it

Chinese gdp is big because it selling mass production but return of investment is Very Very low.

Economy is entirely dependent on exports and their own people cant afford what they produce. Unlike usa or india.

Labour cost has gone up which wasreading their usp. Manufacturing is cheeper in mexico than Chinese.

Making yuan as internatinal currency to rival dollar is just lipservice. If they do it will pushup their currency value affecting exports.

Most of the chinese firms listed in stock exchange are state owned. Factories are run to provide employement and not allowed to go bust which should be ideal fearing unrest with the masses.

Chinese navy has a long way to go operating aircraft carriers as they not only need to gain experiance in operating it and also admirals to learn how command and tactics in deploying carrier battle group which they have no experiance.

Having large no of anti ship massiles have no impact south china sea. Usa can destroy. Even If they knockoff couple of US ships it will become a deadth trap for them since their power projection cannot be extended outside south china that is mallacca strait and they will be virtually cut of from all sea routes.

Any internal political mistake by communist party will make china to implode.

Their will no be Any armed conflict only brinkmanship

All Chinese policies revolves around access to energy.

Middle east going to have major political realinment. Borders going to be redrawn as Most of them are artificially created by colonial powers for ease of access to india.

Correct me dada If im wrong

Arpit Kanodia said...

@nag I dont think they will implode but I think China become democratic.

nag said...

Unlike what our prestitutes tell its china that is encircled with string of pearls and they are worried about it.

nag said...

I mean it will get split on ethinic lines. Survy has shown of some one asks who they are they prefer to identify by their ethinicity than a citizen of communist china

Anonymous said...


nice summary from the link provided in earlier comments.

Vivek said...

Prasun da,
Subramaniam swamy has said that India is working on dividing Pakistan into 4, he said groundwork has begun and everyone in party is working on it
Your views pl


Brihanalla said...

that maddu swamy harami is crazy. He should keep playing his mrithumgam instead of drumming on people's heads.

Anonymous said...

Hi Prasun,

You mentioned IAC will have 3-shaft propeller system, is this the same as or related to electric propulsion?

Best Regards

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