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Tuesday, September 25, 2012

The PLA’s Soaring Unmanned Dragons

Of the several events that took place on June 30 last year within the People’s Republic of China to coincide with the date of the 90th birthday of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and to demonstrate the CPC’s indispensible role in bringing about the ‘New China’, the one that has enormous national and regional security implications for South Asia was the low-key rollout of the People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) latest high-altitude long-endurance (HALE) unmanned aerial vehicle—the Xianglong Soar Dragon—one of three such turbofan-powered UAVs that have been under development since 1999 and have been inducted into service since 2005. The other two remaining HALE UAVs, the WZ-9A (also referred to as the Wuren Zhencha-2000, or WZ-2000) and the Sky Wing (Tian Yi-3), along with the Soar Dragon, are all powered by a single licence-built Ivchenko AI-25TLK twin-shaft medium-bypass turbofan (known locally as WS-11) developed by Ukraine’s Motor Sich, and rated at 3,800lb (16.9kN) thrust. All three HALE UAVs--featuring V-tail configurations have been co-developed by the Chengdu Aircraft Corp (CAC) and the Guizhou Aircraft Industry Corp (GAIC), and are likely to be employed—apart from undertaking intelligence, surveillance, targetting and reconnaissance (ISTR) tasks--as unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAV) and unmanned radar/communications jammers as well.
Presently, all medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) and HALE-UAVs are considered strategic assets and placed under the direct command of the 2nd Department the Central Military Commission’s General Staff Department (GSD). Thus far, 52 new UAVs developed by 70 state-owned R & D institutions have emerged. Three Chinese companies--ASN Technology Group, China Aerospace Science and Industry Corp (CASIC), China Aerospace Science and Technology Corp (CASC), Zhuhai Yintong Energy, Weifan Freesky Aviation Industry Co, and AVIC Defense—account for most of the UAVs and UCAVs built thus far. Presently, ASN Technology is China’s largest UAV manufacturer, with a history of developing UAVs and target drones since 1958. The company works closely with the Xian-based Northwestern Polytechnical University’s UAV Institute, and the Beijing- and Nanjing-based Universities of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing Technology Company, Hebei Electric Power Reconnaissance Design Academy, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Shaanxi Engine Design Institute, GAIC, and the Chengdu Aircraft Design and Research Institute.
The WZ-9A from the CAC/GAIC combine was unveiled in November 2000 at the Airshow China expo in Zhuhai. Having a length of 7.5 metres, wingspan of 9.8 metres, 1.7-tonne maximum takeoff weight, cruise speed of 800kph, combat radius of 800km, endurance of 3 hours, and a service ceiling of 18,000 metres, it also features radar cross-section reduction features, including a flat-bottomed surface blended seamlessly with long swept-wings. Its maiden flight took place on December 26, 2003, following which its on-board 80kg ISTR mission avionics/sensor payload began being flight-tested from August 2004. Although the aircraft has smaller dimensions, it is intended to fly at a service ceiling of 18,000 metres with a reported maximum speed of 800km/h for a total endurance of only 3 hours. The mission payload includes an X-band KLC-6 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) developed by China’s CETC International. A single WS-11 turbofan sits on top of the tail section, with its intake shielded by the wing section and its exhaust nozzle shielded by two V-shaped tailfins extending 40° outwards to reduce both radar and infra-red signatures. A large satallite communications antenna is located inside its head-bulge for real-time transmission of images and ELINT data back to its ground control station. The WZ-9A also carries a chin-mounted turret containing a thermal imager. It entered limited service with the PLA’s GSD in 2007 and conducts only strategic reconnaissance missions. An improved version of the UAV, known as WZ-9B, was unveilled in November 2006 and is now being developed as a stealthy HALE-UCAV and will be armed with internally mounted precision-guided munitions like the FT and LT family of small-diameter bombs, AKD-10 laser-guided anti-armour missiles, and TY-90 within-visual-range air combat missiles. Yet another variant of the WZ-9A is an as yet unnamed operational turboprop-powered strategic ISTR platform featuring 66-feet wingspan and a horizontal stabiliser linking canted outward twin-tails. The first flying prototype was rolled out in October 2008, and its maiden flight took place in November 2009.
The Sky Wing (Tian Yi-3) UAV, optimised for tactical ISTR tasks, was unveilled in November 2006. A functional prototype had been built by April 2008, and its maiden flight took place in September 2008. Built by the CAC/GAIC combine, it has a length of 7.5 metres, wingspan of 9.8 metres, maximum takeoff weight of 1.7 tonnes (including an 80kg mission payload, cruise speed of 800kph, service ceiling of 59,000 feet, and a loiter time of 3 hours. The box-wing Xianglong Soar Dragon UAV was first revealed in November 2006 by the  Chengdu Aircraft Design and Research Institute. It is 14.3 metres long, has a 25-metre wingspan, takeoff weight of 7,500kg with a payload of 650kg, cruise speed of 750kph, cruise range of 7,000km, and a cruise altitude of 18km. Maiden flight of the Xianglong Soar Dragon was successfully conducted on November 7, 2009 at 12:21pm at the Anshun airport and lasted 18 minutes. The Soar Dragon’s joined wing and tail configuration considerably increases the UAV’s range and payload and produce better handling at high altitudes. Joined wings—a subset of closed-wing systems—comprise a sweptback forward wing and a forward-swept aft wing. In the Soar Dragon the rear wing is higher than the forward wing to reduce the effect of the forward wing’s downwash on the rear wing’s lifting qualities. The rear wing has a shorter span than the front wing and its downturned tips meet the front wing at a part-span point. Advocates of the joined wing claim that its advantages stem from the fact that the front and rear wings are structurally cross-braced. This allows a higher aspect ratio while keeping down weight and staying within flutter limits. A higher aspect ratio reduces drag due to lift, and because the wings are both slender and short-span (relative to a single wing with equivalent lift) the wing chords are short, which makes it easier to achieve laminar flow. The joined wing also can reduce trim drag. It is believed that the Soar Dragon will an ISTR platform optimised for broad area maritime surveillance and for providing over-the-horizon targetting information for long-range anti-ship cruise missiles. 
Yet another MALE-UCAV now being promoted for export is AVIC Defense’s Pterodactyl-1 medium-extended long-endurance UCAV, which was developed by the Chengdu Aircraft Design & Research Institute, and has undergone a series of flight trials, including weapons launches, since late 2009. Powered by a 700kgf-thrust turbofan, the Pterodactyl-1’s total payload capacity is 200kg, of which the FLIR turret or even a SAR weighs about 100kg, leaving 100kg of weapons (like two AKD-10 missiles) to be carried under each wing. The UCAV is 9.05 metres long and 2.77 metres high, with a 14-metre wingspan. Maximum takeoff weight is 1,100kg, maximum endurance is 20 hours, maximum operating altitude is 5,000 metres, maximum range is 4,000km, and maximum cruise speed is 280kph.


Anonymous said...

Hi prasun da

Need your views on THAAD:

What are the roles and capabilities of THAAD.Can it can counter cruise missiles of China and pakistan.Is THAAD a replacement or complement of PAC3?Does THAAD and PAC3 have totaly diff. roles? From Indian perspective what will be our capabilities against china and Pak if we buy it. Is both PAC 3 and THAAD required for india?...will be waitin for ur answers ....Asonkhyo Dhonnobad

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To Anon@3.13AM: THAAD was never meant to counter cruise missiles, for cruise missiles are best countered by SHORADS-type systems and in future the Barak-2 MR-SAM/ELM-2258 combination will be available as well. THAAD is meant to counter MRBMs & IRBMs. Patriot PAC-3 is optimised for intercepting NLOS-BSMs & TBMs. From India’s perspective, the PAC-3 & THAAD are both reqd & that’s why the DRDO is trying to develop the AD-1/AD-2 endo-atmospheric interceptors like the PAC-3, while the PDV is expected to have performance parameters similar to those of THAAD.

Mr. Ra 13 said...

The detailed information as provided by you above is a new revelation or was it openly known to others even if in piecemeal. Thanx!

Anonymous said...

Hi Prasun,

Are there any Indian counterpart of Academi (formarly known as Blackwater) or Dyncorp? If yes, are they deployed anywhere?


Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To Mr.RA 13: It has been known to all those that have attended the successive biennial Airshow China expos to Zhuhai since the year 2000.

To NR@5.16AM: Not that I’m aware of.

F said...


Apologies for getting off-topic, again.

Do modern naval guns like the Bofors Mk3 and the Oto Melara Super Rapid have a camera that enables the operator to acquire and fire at target manually using a joystick?

Some non-combatant ships have main guns, yet have no fire director. How is the gun operated?

rad said...

Dear Prasun

Please detail the glide bomb that india is developing, are we doing it alone or the usual bravado of going it alone and taking a yuga with excuses.There are lots of glide bombs around and it it relatively simple , There was one shown in the aero india and we can further develop on that with russian glonass and our local Fibre optic gyro systems .

Anonymous said...

DeaR Prasun da

Do you have any info regarding S 400 development funding by China?It has been claimed by janes defence.Russia might export S400 to china in 2017.If china gets this , then India will have a big disadvantage..Dont u think we should do our every bit to stop this SAM going to China...U have said that S 400 is not mature enough..But it is in mass production for Russian forces..Can S 400 do the same thing as THAAD/PAC3 combo can do??Going by the internet it seems so. S 400 can counter cruise as well as ballistic missiles..Ur detailed thoughts pls...VMT

Vikram GUha said...

Prasun da ,

I am trying to get some detail information about the Offset commitments of trier 1 , tier 2
& tier 3 companies with the Indian Government. Will you please let me know where I can find these information.


Unknown said...

Thaks Prasun for another informative post.

Can we expect more India-centric posts in the future as these are the ones I most enjoy reading.l

Also when do you see the first LUH(foreign),Ah-64s,S-70B/MH-60R and Ch-47 arriving (not being contracted for but actually being delivered to India)??

And wrt recent news of an Indian "SOCOM" being raised will it be just the 3 SOFs (PARA (SF),MARCOs and Garud) under the pervue or will Special group too be under this command. And would this command have its own budget? I'd assume the 77 Veiled Vipers SQD with the C-130Js would comeunder this SOCOM but would there be any other aviation assets being proucured or otherwise that would be under SOCOM's control such as C-27Js/C-295s in the future and LUH and Rudra? Would the IA/IAF set up any SOARs similar to the 160TH SOAR of the US army for supporting SOFs with roatry wing assets?

And would the LT GEN from the IA in charge of this SOCOM be from a SF background or would he be some infantry commander?(which would be bad)

Also how many artillery pecices WILL the IA be reciving in the next 10 years? And do you see the competions that are on going right now and are in some cases in their 3rd/4th revival going through this time?

Also when will the M77 ULH contract be signed?

AK said...

Hi Prasun , With the end customers-IA , IAF knowing full well that AD-1,2,PDV wont be operational for a good period of time and will take 8 years to mature, are they making any efforts or are inclined to procure PAC-3MSE , THAAD in large quantities . Is PAC-3 MSE the same size as that of PAC-3 & can 16 PAC-3 MSE be mounted on a single TEL like PAC-3 .Is IA & IAF procuring any Barak-2 or its only customer will be IN .
What will be the use of Nirbhay ALCM in China context. It will be a nuclear armed missile. So , it wont be of any use for striking fixed military installations with pinpoint accuracy . Any new standoff PGM for upgraded Su-30mki , Mirage 2000UPG ?

abs said...

very many thanks for your precious replies, however perhaps you can clarify a few more points
1)Prasunda given the PLAAF and PLA posturing and concentration of troops in parts adjoining that of Ladakh and Uttarakhand(based on the Live fir exercises conducted and the placement of their tube and rocket artillery assets as well as that of its Armoured formations) Would you agree to it that the a border war with PLA would happen in these areas of Ladakh and Uttarakhand(I was going through a few of your earlier comments and this now and found this to be as what you had apprehended earlier)? Especially as the threats to the areas of Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh is pretty well catered for increasingly so given the new accretions of the INDIAN Army and due to the terrain which leaves limited room for maneuvre based warfare and more room for attrition based warfare.
2) While I agree that the OTH-B are never meant to provide accurate incoming aerial threats coordinates accurately, but they do give sufficient warning time as an effective 'look out for' system. So don't you think that such OTH-B radars could be based in the Northern parts of INDIA?
3) Prasunda while its sufficiently well understood that the IAF is in need of large numbers of LR-SAMs and MR-SAMs(the latter being available only after 2015 it seems), Do you think the numbers of placed orders and indents and plans that have been set cater sufficiently for REDUNDANCY given that it usually requires multiple launches of interceptors to have a sufficient high kill probability? Given the PLA's doctrine of Launching a barrage of MRBM/IRBMs and NLOS-BSMs?
4) Why doesnt INDIA go for the joint development with Israel for ALHK carrying HALE loitering UCAVs? This would be far more cost-effective than acquiring LR-SAMs and MR-SAMs as well as the AD1/2 and PDV interceptors in such large numbers as to cater for redundancy?
I heard you commenting several times that loitering UAVs and aerostats armed with missiles for ABM measure 'were being looked at'?
5) For precision target coordinates of incoming hostile TBMs and NLOS-BSMs and MRBMs and LACMS and IRBMs as ur rightly pointed out Green Pines having a range of 1500 km and Arudhra MPRs would be ideal. When can we see these radars in sufficient numbers to be placed along the China front? Are the numbers good enough to cover the China front adequately? For one I believe that the 2 Green Pines procured were solely for the BMD program and further Green Pines would not be procured till the definitive BMD emerges. Your thoughts on this?
6)I had heard long back that the IA is interested in having both fixed wing and rotary winged EW assets. Why doesn't the IA and even the IAF go for UAVs to fulfill this mission requirement as it would be a huge boost and degrade the adversarys Radars and communications systems, both on ground and aerial??? Are there any such plans? Or will the IA and IAF's existing set of EW assets in the form of UAVs and A/Cs and ground based EW suffice?
7)When do you think the IAF would acquire RISTA and AWACS platforms that could fly from the high altitude air based along the China and Pakistan fronts? If there are no such plans then would the AWACS and to be procured RISTA systems be flown from the plains to the war theatre?
8)How many RISTAs would be procured eventually and would the numbers suffice?
9)Why doesn't the IA go for rotary winged UCAVs that can give it unprecedented amount of direct fire support as well as unprecedented Battlefield Air Intediction capabilty and that too economically.
Are there any plans for such rotary winged UCAVs? and would they be able to conduct operations in high altitude mountainous terrain like the one prevailing in North-East and Kargil like regions?
10) Given the HALE and MALE Ucavs reportedly under development do you think they would be able to provide SEAD,DEAD,BAI, and precision strike roles at the enemy's rear? Would they also be able to undertake such missions in high altitude regions like Kargil and North East??

abs said...

11) And I totally agree with you and believe that increasingly the prospects of an INDIA-China war is decreasing more so because of the reasonable chances of INDIA winning a war and substantial chances of the war ending in a stalemate. Either way it would mean that China and its Xenophobic Jingoists suffer a humiliating Defeat. Something that China can't afford cuz it will otherwise have to forego the "dominant power in Asia" tag and start being seen under the prism of parity by all.

Anonymous said...

Sir , I have a few queries.
1. Are Tu-142 of IN being upgraded with El-2022(V)3 radars ? Will the remaining seven aircrafts also be upgraded ?
2. Will the upgradation of Mirage 2000 to mk9 standard take 10 years as reported in media ?
3.Now does THAAD compare to RIM-161 Standard missile 3? Is RIM-161 better at intercepting IRBM than THAAD due to its mk72 booster and greater range .
4.There is no space for tank warfare in Sikkim and the land opposite to it across the border. So the war in this area will be fought by infantry ?
5.What is the large scale field exercises now being conducted by Pakistan Army in Thar desert ?
6.You ahve said that Nirbhay will look like Babur,3M14E. But Nirbhay ALCM looks different. So is this another missile sharing the same name ?
7.Has new stocks of Barak-1 been ordered by IN for replenishing its stocks. The procurement was cancelled due to CBI involvement. Is IN evaluating new CIWS and anti ASHM missile system .

Sayan said...

Sir ,With Tatra deals on hold, BEML revs up on other Army projects
Army needs a large no of vehicles about 7000 of them . Can you pls throw some light into them . Who will be the participating in the various categories ? When will the orders in the various categories be placed ? Also provide some info on the VSHORADS competition . The winner , is it going to replace Army Igla an other old MANPADS ?

Sayan said...

Sir , Can you give te max engagement ranges if RBS-70, Igla S , Mistral .

Sayan said...

Sir , Dont you think Stanag level 1 is inadequate and Stanag Level 3 or 4 or 6.

Anonymous said...

Prasun da

What are the chances of VL-MICA being selected as SHORADS for both the IAF and the Indian Navy?

rad said...

hi prasun

We should not go in for the SAAB rbs-90 for the fact that the indian battle field will be full of smoke and dust in the plains and for the man in the loop guiding it manually will be a night mare and we never know the physical and the mental condition of the operator in real war. This is in spite of the jam proof laser guidance . comments?.
The russian igla is a compromised missile and they have given it to china as well. The best bet would be the mistral-2 as it has the best kill ratio though expensive and the french would gladly give TOT.

Anonymous said...

sir why is that when pac 3 has of 160km range against aircraft and akash has a miserable 30km range...even when akash weighs more than pac 3 !!!!!

even at excess of 700kgs it is called a shorad...carring it around is a nightmare !!

even a rocket boosted ground launched bvr missile can achieve better than that...

above all even the barak that weighs a whole lot less and still manages more than twice the range !!

akash even doesnt have an active seeker....its still command guided !!!

what i want to ask is that what does akash offer that justifies such a montrous agility , speed , accuracy...what does it offer...

is an old russian sam design that drdo bought off and put an indian sticker on it...and still cant field it after decades !!

Unknown said...


Are the IN VBSS teams getting new SMGs to replace their 9MM STENS? As I have seen pics of IN VBSS teams with decent gear (helmets+BPJS) but still with the outdated Stens.

Rahul said...

Hi Prasun, RBS-70 NG comes with an integrated highly advanced sighting and targetting system with high res thermal imager. Other MANPADS now in the fray dont have such sighting systems. It also has a high range 8 km vs 6 and 6.5 km of Igla-S , mistral. Unfortunately its not a fire and forget missile .How can a targetted ac escape from RBS-70 NG.The new sighting system overcomes the problem of earht's curvature and mk1 eyeball problem. The new missile is also deadly than ever. Adequate countermeasures needs to be install on IAF transport acs,fightyer jets, helicopters like Mi-17v1/5, Dhruv ALH.

Ramesh said...

Hello Prasun,

I would want to start a business for manufacturing aircraft parts . Do you think the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises will be willing to give me a loan or is there any other body that I should approach ?


Anonymous said...

sir .
have u got any details regarding the new indian special op command that being planned.. ?
what would be the numerical strength of this command.. ??
will NSG & SFF form part of it ???
& sir . of what i know most indian battalions even in field area have no more than 8-10 officers assigned..
when there should be atleast 22.. does such situation exists in Ind. SF as well ???
& how do units operate with such deficiency ??can u plzz provide the breakdown of those 22 officers acc. to there job profile.. ??
i'll be extremely thankfull for the answers sir..there id no one to ans these ques..only u can do it sir..
plzz reply..

Anonymous said...

Sir , All infantry personnel of British Army posted in Afghanistan wear bulletproof jackets. Osprey Bp jacket is the standard issue of all British Army soldiers. These are not flak jackets. Besides there are also other armed forces where bullet proof vests are a standard issue to foot soldiers. So why does IA adopt this practise. These jackets will raise the protection levels of soldiers to a whole new level . New assault rifles are to be procured by IA . Will they be multi calibre as reported by IndiaToday .

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To FARIS: Not camera, but an optronic fire-director, also known as a remote-controlled weapons station. All vessels equipped with SRGMs like 76/62 etc have such a system on board.

To RAD: The glide-bomb is the Sudarshan LGB (not GPS-guided), about which I had uploaded some posters of IRDE in the DEFEXPO 2012 thread. A rocket-powered version of this LGB is also being developed.

To Anon@11.55AM: Both China & Vietnam are prospective export customers for the S-400. But without the support of early warning satellites, any ballistic missile interceptor will face severe constraints in terms of target acquisition. In addition, Russia has yet to come up with mature active phased-array target acquisition/target engagement radars like what Israel & the US has. Therefore, the S-400 is unlikely to be in the same league as THAAD.

To VIKRAM GUHA: Your best option is to approach ASSOCHAM or FICCI, or even go directly to the MoD’s Defence Offsets Facilitation Agency.

To UNKNOWN: All those platforms should start arriving in the latter half of this decade. The proposed SOCOM will include SF(Para), MARCOS, Garud & the SFF. Its budget will come from HQ Integrated Defence Staff. The SOCOM will not have its integral transportation assets. The CO of this Command will have to be special operations forces-qualified. Within this decade, at least 1,800 155mm field artillery howitzers should enter service, especially the 145 LW-155s & the upgraded M-46 155/45-cal units, plus a few upgraded FH-77B 45-cal howitzers. Carbines have been phased out by the IN as of late 2011.

To AK: The armed forces have already formally passed on their reqmts to the MoD via HQ IDS & it is now up to the GoI to do a comparative evaluation of what’s available off-the-shelf versus what the DRDO can ‘guarantee’ to provide. At the same time, the armed forces are not taking any chances & are clearly pressing ahead with the acquisition of offensive firepower capabilities reqd for ensuring conventional deterrence. As for Nirbhay, it will be useless in a limited high-intensity conventional conflict scenario involving China, since all potential military targets to be struck will be only at a depth of 550km on China’s side of the LAC, for which air-launched CALCMs & NLOS-BSMs will more than suffice.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To ABS: In the Ladakh, Uttarakhand & Himachal Pradesh, the PLA will not attempt to conquer any territory, & will instead launch only punitive attacks with armour & massed artillery firepower in order to capture certain dominating features so that effective border domination is attained. In the east, between Sikkim & West Bhutan, the PLA would like to capture some territory so that its defences in that sector can be accorded some degree of defensive depth. And in order to achieve this, the PLA must first try its level-best to prevent the arrival of Indian reinforcements into Sikkim from the rest of the North East via the Siliguri Corridor.
Regarding ballistic missile early warning radars, EL/M-2080 Green Pine-type radars would be preferable to OTH-B radars. However, it remains to be seen if the US will allow Israel to supply additional Green Pine radars to India. In addition, efforts now should be made to enlist Japan’s help in developing the constellation of ‘Missile Monitoring System’ satellites for ballistic missile early warning. MR-SAM and LR-SAM orders will be placed in successive tranches after the India-based military-industrial production facilities acquire a degree of maturity & quality consistency. I have been consistently calling for developing a HALE-UCAV version of the Rustom-2 powered by Kaveri turbofan. A hunter-killer combination comprising one vehicle armed with an AAM version of the Barak-2 & another vehicle equipped with a belly-mounted AESA search radar needs to be looked into.
India’s armed forces have so far taken only baby-steps when it comes to UAVs. Till today, there’s no tri-services protocol or doctrine governing the usage of UAVs, let alone UCAVs. Unless the airspace management issues & spectrum management issues are ironed out, deployment of UAVs & UCAVs will proceed at a snail’s pace. No RISTA or AEW & C platforms will operate out of forward air bases. Instead, they will be operating out of the hinterland as they will be backed up by aerial refuelling tankers. Numbers of such platforms to be acquired are not yet finalised.

To Anon@10.09PM: For the remaining seven Tu-142Ms, Russia has proposed the same mission sensor/mission management package that now exists on the five IL-38SDs. Yes, it will take a decade to receive all Mirage 2000-5 Mk2s. RIM-161 requires a greater range as it is fired from a warship that’s not likely to be near to the target that it is meant to protect. THAAD on the other hand is land-based & can therefore be located adjacent to or within the targetted area. The terrain along the LAC in Sikkim & AP is such that only infantry armed with LAWs, RCLs & AGLs will be able to fight one another. Have you seen the Nirbhay ALCM? No follow-on orders have been placed for Barak-1.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To SAYAN: TATA Motors, Ashok Leyland & Mahindra & Mahindra, plus VOLVO, VECTRA-KAMAZ & URAL Trucks are all contenders for supplying such vehicles. For the VSHORADS/MANPADS competition there’s the Mistral, RBS-70, Chiron & Igla-S. The winner will replace existing Iglas & Igla-1s.

To Anon@10.12AM: The VL-MICA, VL IRIS-T & RIM-116 RAM are all excellent alternatives to the Barak-1 for various platforms, especially the Project 28 ASW corvettes, Project 1135.6 FFGs & Project 17A FFGs.

To Anon@12.41PM: The Akash Mk1 missile was reverse-engineered & slight re-engineered from the existing KUB missile round.

To RAHUL: All VSHORADS/MANPADS have optional high-rez thermal imagers & even IFF transponders, if reqd. A fire-n-forget capability is always more desirable from a user’s perspective.

To RAMESH: You can secure govt loans only if your project’s financial earning projections are viability-based. The simpler option, of course, is to post a collateral & even commercial banks can then fund your business activities.

To Anon@9.35PM: It is still early days for the so-called SOCOM and not even its charter of functions has been agreed upon, leave alone its unit-level compositions. NSG won’t be part of it since NSG comes under the MHA, and not the MoD.

To Anon@11.28PM: Only those personnel engaged in constabulary functions like foot-patrolling, guards for installations & cordon-n-search are reqd to wear BPJs. During combat, especially at medium & high altitudes, no sane individual will wear BPJs for obvious reasons.

Vikram Guha said...

Prasun da , as always many thanks.


Gessler said...

Hello Prasun bhai, here, I have another lot of questions to throw at you with all my might -

1. How many land troops of IA are currently deployed on the china front?

2. When will the first deliveries of operational Nirbhay ALCMs commence? Will they be equipped with MKIs deployed on NE front?

3. What is the progress on AURA Stealth Drone? Has construcion of the first prototype begun as yet??

4. Where will the first inducted Rudra gunships be deployed?

5. What is the scope for Indo-Vietnamese defence relationship? What exactly can India provide to Vietnam in terms of military hardware?

6. Has Pipavav Shipyard begun the building of the 5 follow-on Saryu OPVs? When will they be delivered?

7. What types of military hardware will IN deploy at INS Baaz?

8. When is the next test launch of Agni-5 scheduled for? Will it be from a canister??

9. And finally...when is your said thread about Indian & chinese border military build-up coming?? I can't wait to read it! :D

Anonymous said...

Sir does N011M BARS Mk-3 radar have LPI mode?