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Wednesday, September 19, 2012

Time To Keep 24/7 Tabs On Uninvited Guests As Well As On China's Latest DF-16 IRBM & DF-21C MRBM Deployments

Both the Indian Army and Indian Air Force are rushing their respective stocks of manportable air-defence radars to forward locations along the Sino-Indian LAC to keep track of the PLA’s routine airspace transgressions—something that should have been done as far back as 2008. While the IAF’s DRDO-developed and Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL)-built S-band Aslesha three-dimensional micro-radars are being deployed at Nyoma, Chushul and Fukche, the Army-specific Bharani manportable radars are being deployed at Demchok and Pangong Tso in Ladakh, as well as at two locations in Uttarakhand. The Aslesha, which weighs 250kg, uses low-probability-of-intercept frequencies to look out for terrain-hugging tactical UAVs and helicopters over mountainous terrain out to 50km. The IAF has to date ordered 21 of them, and first deliveries took place in January 2008. On the other hand, the Bharani is a two-dimensional L-band gapfiller system now in series-production for the Army. It has a range of 40km and can track up to 100 airborne targets. To date, 16 Bharanis—meant to be used in conjunction with VSHORADS/MANPADS—have been ordered, with deliveries beginning this March. Also under delivery are 29 THALES Nederland-developed motorised Reporter tactical control radars for the Army’s upgraded ZU-23 air-defence guns, some of which will.also be deployed at Nyoma, Chushul and Fukche.

Meanwhile, latest photos from China (below) more or less confirm that the People’s Liberation Army’s 2nd Artillery Corps has begun deploying two of its latest India-specific ballistic missiles—DF-21C MRBM and DF-16 IRBM—to hardened missile storage sites at Delingha and Da Qaidam, in Central China, and possibly also at Xiadulla, 98km from the Karakoram mountain pass between Ladakh and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.
And more ZTZ-96G MBTs (above) can be seen making their way to the central sector of the LAC.


Anonymous said...

Hi Prasun da

You have always talked abt threats to india from chinese and pakistani NLOS BSM, other cruise missiles and MBRLs.But what is the most potent weapon to counter them...?PAC 3, S400 or David Sling/stunner.The fact that india can lay hands on all the three platforms given above which one should we choose and WHY??Forget DRDO..GOI will make a blunder if it depends fully on DRDO. DRDO can continue developing AAD/PAD but we should have other platforms to complement them...Ur thoughts pls....VMT

Anonymous said...

When are the Israeli spider units coming to India?What no. of units and missiles would be deployed?

Gessler said...

Any plan to deploy the 4-D AESA Arudhra MPRs and BEL-built Swathi WLRs in this area?

Sir have any Aerostats been deployed on the NE border or they only for pakistan?

Anonymous said...

Sir does the P-28 Kamorta corvettes carry any Klub missiles? Wiki page for project-28 says no, but the same wiki page for INS Kamorta says yes, it carries 8.

Any views? How will the ship defend itself against maritime threats if it doen't have any missiles?? just the guns are not enough, right?

abs said...

pending your replies to my queries on ur previous post, i would also like to ask you as to if the INDIAN Army's plans to raise two Independent Armoured Regiments with the T-90S and BMP-2 ICVs could match upto and hold on their own against the Chinese type 96G tanks being placed along with wheeled tank destroyers

abs said...
1)is this true?

Anonymous said...

Sir, I have a few queries.
1.Even with the creation of Brahmos Aerospace limited, the production is only 20 per annum. This is sheer madness. BDL don’t have to create these missiles. They have already had their hands full in other products. So, BAL should have produced more than 100 missiles per annum.
2. Isnt the IA,IN complaining about this ? Are there any chances of this rate going up to 100+ per annum .
3. After 4 regiments of Spyder-SR aare deployed wont the air defense scenario evolve. With these assets IA can protect more of its artillery,tank assets and installations. You have previously said that these 4 regiments will not replace OSA-AK batteries. So the no will go up.
4. Is Akash mk1 sam able to intercept cruise missiles both air launched and ground launched, NLOS-BSM,TBM.Will mk2 variant able to accomplish all this ?
5.The various Akash squadrons that are deployed in NE airbases.How will they be used. Will they be used only against fighter jets,UAVs or other more kinematically demanding targets .

Anonymous said...


How many Dhruvs, Chetaks, Mi-17s, Mi-8s does IAF currently have? I heard 1 Mi-26 crashed , has it been repaired and put back into service??

Is there any available number of Prithvis and Agnis are in IA/SFC inventory? When will the Agni-3 be deployed and canisterized??

Anonymous said...

4D is just scientist speak for pulse doppler radars.

saurav jha said...

Hello Prasun,

What can we infer from this report ..?
IAF looks to replace crashed Mirage fighter jets

Will InAF buy just two planes..?

abs said...

would not acquiring the David's Sling for the chinese front be more helpful than acquiring Iron Dome? While the Iron Dome is used for the Pakistani front?

Anonymous said...

You have once posted man-portable radar unit used by Israeli Special forces. Does India have plan to aquire any such units ?

Rahul said...

Hi Prasun , When will the two independent armoured brigades be raised & fielded ? 116 tanks for war wastage reserves. Its a huge no. Is this the prcatise followed by other armies like US Army,PLA Western nations and Russia ? A total of 120 ICV are needed for these two brigades . Why is IA agin going for BMP-2. It is the most 3rd class,retrograde IFV in the world. just look at the armour protection which can be penetrated by even a 7.62 ap round. IA ought to go for BMP-3 with better armour package, CV-90.
With an order of 348 T-90AM, another 322 needs to be procured to bring the total no to 1657. Whats the likelihood of that ? Has any progess been made for upgrading the existing T-90S to T-90AM standards and fitting them with AMAP like armour package ?Can HVF Avadi manufacture 100 T-90 per month ?

abs said...

can u tell us about the status of the
e-bomb that was in development by the TBRL and was slated to be developed by the end of 12th plan??

Rahul said...

Hi Prasun, Doesn't the IAF has low level GS-100 radar ? How many such radars were bought ? Why only man portable low level radars with a small range are being sought ? El-2084 radar can be deployed. IAI aerostat mounted radars will be best as they will be up at a height where there will be no terrain feature to mask the radar emissions. When will the interception elements be deployed. ? It is worthless to detect an track intruders without any sam to intercept them . IAF must buy new sam systems for this purpose which can intercept everything PLAAF & PLA has to offer. Akashmk1 is not upto the job.

Are more ZU-23-2 guns being procured or the ones meant for deployment are from existing stocks? Why is IA & IAF only fielding radars at ALG? They needs to be deployed at other locations also and close to the border so that warning can be given the moment the acs start approaching the border. Pls post some brochure , pics on Reporter radar. Googled it but couldn't find anything significant.

Why can't IAF fighter jets also engage in such tea transgression ? PLAAF is showing their might. Why can't we ours ? Why cant MoD ask IAF to intercept these jets an helos

Anonymous said...

Sir, Can you
Pls tell the countermeasures to e - bomb. It can destroy almost any circuits . Airforce aircrafts, radar stations, Army and Navy combat equipment and missiles. It will cripple everything and open pathway to invasion. So every combat aircraft, transport aircraft must have full EMP hardening. DRDO must develope ways to protect every combat equipment from tanks to aircrafts while thy are in use or not in use .

Anonymous said...

Which radar has emerged victorious in Long range radar category of IAF for which Elta ADSTAR , GS-400 , Selex Galileo radars were competing. What no is to be procured ? Does ADAR radar in IAF service has the same max range of THD-1955 radars which they replaced. THD-1955 had a range of 800 km.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To Anon@10.06AM: In a straightforward fight involving various contenders today, the PAC-3 will emerge tops for countering NLOS-BSMs, no doubt about that. By 2016 the Barak-8 LR-SAM will be available for countering NLOS-BSMs. For countering MBRL rockets, the Iron Dome/Tamir combination is the only one available at the moment. The DRDO’s BMD R & D project isn’t meant to counter NLOS-BSMs at all. Instead, it aims to neutralize the threats posed by TBMs & IRBMs.

To Anon@10.14AM: They have already arrived.

To GESSLER: Why should such radars be deployed in ALGs? The reqmt is just for the detection of intruding helicopters, & not hostile artillery barrages or air-to-ground strikes. The Swathi WLR isn’t even ready for service induction. EL/M-2083 aerostat-mounted radars (only two acquired) are Pakistan-specific. They can’t be deployed to the North East as they will be useless over mountainous terrain & probably drift away due to the bad weather conditions in such areas. Way back in 1989 a similar incident happened along the 38th Parallel when a South Korean aerostat equipped with a APG-63 radar broke its tethers & drifted across to the North.

To Anon@3.12PM: Why should an ASW corvette have any kind of ASCM on board? There’s no need for it. But yes, such corvettes do require a close-in defence system comprising both AK-630M guns & vertically-launched anti-ASCM missiles.

To ABS: It is not just about deploying MBTs. The PLA has deployed ZTZ-96G MBT regiments backed up by Z-9WE attack helicopters, field artillery brigades (using both tube artillery & MBRLs, plus NLOS-BSMs) and air-defence artillery regiments. Countering this with an Indian armoured brigade would just not work. The IA needs to back its armoured brigade with multi-layered air-defence artillery coverage, Rudra-type helicopter gunships as well as Smerch-M & Pinaka Mk1 MBRLs, plys Prahaar-type NLOS-BSMs. Anti-gravity technologies have existed since the early 1930s. The Nazis were in the forefront of such R & D and now the US and Germans are in the lead. The E-bomb will be ready for delivery only by 2017.

BDL isn’t producing any BrahMos. It never did. Akash Mk1 or Mk2 is not optimised for intercepting NLOS-BSMs. But the Barak-8 LR-SAM will. The Akash Mk1s in the North East will be dual-capable against both combat aircraft & helicopters.

To Anon@6.59PM: The Mi-26T that crashed was a write-off. Only three are in operational service now. The IAF has about 50 Dhruvs & 80-odd Chetaks, plus some 60 older Mi-8Ts & Mi-17s & 40 Mi-171s. About 80 Prithvi P-150s have been produced. Agni-3 can never be cannisterised, only Agni-4 & Agni-5 can.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To Saurav Jha: Yes, & they will most likely some from surplus French Air Force stocks, since the largest number of Mirage 2000 tandem-seaters are in service in France.

To Anon@9.16PM: There are always plans, but whether such plans get converted into reality is another matter altogather.

To RAHUL: All data on the number of radars being acquired by India is in the IACCCS thread. None of the radars you’ve mentioned were developed for deployment at such high altitudes & will never function in inclement weather conditions of the type prevalent in those areas. Even the Rohini won’t, unless it is re-engineered. Both the DRDO-developed radars were designed specifically for operations under such weather conditions. The Reporter radar was developed in the early 1980s like Ericsson’s Giraffe, & therefore one won’t find much info on them in the web. There are no plans to procure any more ZU-23-2s as of now. The situation may change later. IAF & Army aircraft too engage in such transgressions as a matter of routine. But you don’t get to hear about them because that’s not considered ‘newsworthy’ for any ‘desi’ journalist or news agency. If you ask about this to Chinese officials, they will give detailed figures about such Indian transgressions. But the problem is, no one from the Indian side bothers to ask such questions to the PRC Embassy in Delhi. Neither side can intercept each other’s aircraft as there’s a no-fly zone in place for a depth of 10km on either side of the LAC. Therefore, flights of any armed airborne platform are forbidden for both. The same applies to holding army exercises: neither side can conduct any form of military exercise in such zones, and only Battalion-level exercises are permitted to be conducted without any prior warning 10km away from the LAC. For Brigade-level exercises & above, two weeks advance notification has to be given by any side that wants to conduct such exercises anywhere along the LAC.

To Anon@9.51PM: Just Google ‘EMP blast after-effects’ & you will get to know all about e-bomb. This is nothing new & such bombs have been available from Russia since the early 1990s. Sweden bought a few of them from Russia two decades ago.

To Anon@11.20PM: The competition hasn’t ended as yet. It is still in progress. About 25 units will be procured. The THD-1955 had a long-range due to its dual taskings: airspace surveillance, and airspace/air traffic management. Today, the IAF doesn’t need such capabilities since the latter functions can easily be performed by the Joint ATC network. Consequently, an instrumented range of 350km (like those of the IAF’s existing TRS-2215 radars) will suffice for airspace surveillance radars.

Mr. Ra 13 said...

As per the Agni-IV successful test yesterday, it has again been reiterated by the authorities that the accuracy/CEP has been of less that 100 meters. What are your kind comments.

Black Hawk said...

I don't think the Agni IV/V will be canisterised. Those missiles are not all composite missiles like the Trident or Topol M. In the Agni IV only the second stage is made up of CFC. In the Agni V only the third stage is CFC. All the other stages are made up of maraging steel. Sometime back Avinash Chander, in an interview, had stated that the final deployed missile will be an all composite missile with MIRV capabilities very much like the Topol M. Also recently a scientist from ASL had stated in an interview with Outlook that MIRV capability is exactly the same as the capability to launch multiple satellites from a single rocket, something that the PSLV has been doing regularly. So the MIRV technology more or less exists in the country and can be deployed on a missile with some minor re-engineering.

In my opinion, the ASL will soon test a canisterised version of the Agni V. But this will only be for the purpose of developing expertise in canisterizing a missile and cold launching it. Very soon we are going to see a new family of missiles that are all composite, with a payload capacity of at least 1.5 tons and with a warhead bus to deploy MIRVs. I think two such missiles will be developed. One for Pakistan and Western China with a range of 1500-2000 km and deployed in Northern and Central India. The other will be for Southern, Eastern and North Eastern China with a range of 5000-6000 km to be deployed in peninsular India. It is these missiles that will be produced in numbers, canisterised and mounted on trucks. The current Agni family will be declared as retired once the new missiles enter service.

What do you think.??

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To Mr.RA 13: At maximum or even medium range, it is impossible to guarantee a CEP of less than 100 metres in the absence of GPS navigation support. It is therefore imperative that the indigenous IRNSS constellation of GPS navigation satellites is operationalised ASAP. The project is already two years behind deployment schedule.

To BLACK HAWK: I concur with your appreciation of cannisterisation of Agni-4/5 as they now exist. For successful cannisterisation & ensured high mobility on land, all stages of the missiles have to be all-composite structures. The present configurations of Agni-4/5 do not permit cannisterisation or even series-production for operational deployment. I do not foresee the final operational versions of Agni-4/5 emerging until the latter half of this decade. When it comes to delivering MIRVs, the release of the MIRVs involves the same techniques & technologies as those reqd for launching multiple satellites from a single satellite launch rocket. But that’s only half the job done. Ensuring that the MIRVs reach their intended targets with an appreciable degree of accuracy (CEP of less than 100 metres) requires two critical inputs: one, prioritising of strategic targeting (i.e. targets to be identified & selected) for which one requires a network of at least four SAR-equipped overhead recce satellites; and two, a constellation of GPS navigation satellites for ensuring high accuracy of MIRV delivery. Both these inputs are now missing & hopefully they will be available by the latter half of this decade as well.

Anonymous said...

Prasun sir,

Are there any automated 30mm CIWS guns in development in India? I saw on a .pdf document on GSL's website and a offshore patrol vessel they're building called OPV-90 has a 30mm gun called CRN-91 with FCS, is it indigenous? Is it automated or directed??

Is there any scope to retrofit the P-15A DDGs with automated 30mm CIWS guns instead of the directed 4 x AK-630Ms it carries.

Whats the max rate of fire of AK-630 guns?

Mayur M Manapure said...

Dear Prasun sir, have you ever worked for DRDO...?

SK said...

"For successful cannisterisation & ensured high mobility on land, all stages of the missiles have to be all-composite structures"

Why is a all composite structure needed for Canister launch ? I understand regular maraging steel stages will be heavier than composite ones so the canister ejection mechanism should be more robust to handle the extra weight. Are there any other complications involved ?

Anonymous said...

PRASUN sir , I donot want to know about e bomb. I want to know whether our critical military hardware are well protected against such threats . Are there any R&D going on in DRDO which aims at measures to protect radars, missiles, control and command centers and all IAF aircrafts especially fighters from the effects of E bomb and EMP blasts. Has any Su-30mki subjected to full spectrum of EMP blasts? Can this jet withstand full scale EMP blasts and continue to remain airborne and operational . Is the BARS radar able to work after exposed to such EMP . Fly by wire is a very important aspect of a jet. Is it fully protected ? Why aren't fighter jet manufacturers make their jets resilient to full scale EMP blasts. DRDO can design the Tejas mk2 keeping the e bomb scenario in mind. E bomb is more dangerous than an atom bomb. Reply pls.

Sayan said...

Sir , What is the use of a hypersonic Brahmos missile . The more fast the missile travels the more it will be unmanuverable. Where will this missile find application. Why is US DoD investing so heavily on hypersonic technology ? Moat of them are black projects .

Anonymous said...

Sir when is the scheduked debut flight of the LCA Navy NP-2 single-seat variant?

Unknown said...


Can you give exact details of the MAF-1 upg project now on. Does the project consist of purely adding navigational aids to IAF bases or is there a more extensive overhaul to happen ie hangers, extenedning runways,re-tarmacing runwaus,adding ground based infrastricture for cleaining/maintence of a/c new buildings for personal etc And will this project bring the encompassed AFBs upto international standsards of AFBs?

+does the UPG include the upgrade of fire-fighting equipment such as ARFF units and their tenders/trucks?

abs said...

thanks for your replies however what i tried to mean is
1)if INDIA really tested any anti gravity based weapon?
2) would the T-90S be able to match the Chinese type96G MBT in terms of firepower? and other crucial performance characteristics?
What happened to your solution of the Tank-Ex being fielded along with the BMP-T???Would not it have been a better alternative considering the Tank-EX's better firepower and it being better than the T-90S being a derivative of the arjun MBT which is far better than the T-90S?
3)When Talking about the anti air artillery for the Integrated Armoured regiments what kinds and systems are being looked at?Would these go into these units right from the very beginning?
4)Considering the year 2016 for the operationalisation of these armoured regiments, would they be provided/have the services of tube and rocket artillery assets and the rudra gunships especially during wartime??

Anonymous said...

Prasun in future can the upcoming Navy OTHR used for guiding ALCM missiles where once the target is in the range the onboard terminal seeker can step-in. If required making using of sat-com datalinks.

Anonymous said...

Sir how many BrahMos missiles can one MKI carry after the upgrade is completed?

Anonymous said...

Prasun da, how many Arjuns will IA ultimately procure? 248 Mk-1s and 118 Mk-2s is that it? Or have I missed something..?

Anonymous said...

I wish the United states of India option comes again :)though it will never happen

Rahul said...

Hi Prasun , When will the two independent armoured brigades be raised & fielded ? 116 tanks for war wastage reserves. Its a huge no. Is this the prcatise followed by other armies like US Army,PLA Western nations and Russia ? A total of 120 ICV are needed for these two brigades . Why is IA agin going for BMP-2. It is the most 3rd class,retrograde IFV in the world. just look at the armour protection which can be penetrated by even a 7.62 ap round. IA ought to go for BMP-3 with better armour package, CV-90.
With an order of 348 T-90AM, another 322 needs to be procured to bring the total no to 1657. Whats the likelihood of that ? Has any progess been made for upgrading the existing T-90S to T-90AM standards and fitting them with AMAP like armour package ?Can HVF Avadi manufacture 100 T-90 per month ?

Unknown said...


will Boeing be setting up similar world-class infrastructure wrt hangersmground-support vehicles,maintence facilites at Hindon and IN air bases for the the C-17 and P-8? The recent NDTV documentary on the C-130J at Hindon showed that LM has set up amazing infrastructure at Hindon from hangers to pilot conference rooms to SQD housing even to the John Deere ground buggies and jet-wash trailers.

AK said...

Hi Prasun, PAC-3 can also intercept TBM,MBRLS aircrafts, helicopters,cruise missiles. Barak-8 will NE able to intercept MBRLS, TBM, IRBM. What is the status of AD-1,2 missiles ? Why can't Tamir be used against NLOS-BSM ? At present what is the main standoff air-ground weapon(50+ km) of IAF Sukhoi-30 MKI, Mirage 2000 ? As part of Mirage 2000 UPG upgrade why hasn't any AASM been ordered ?

Anonymous said...

Hi Prasun,

Seems Dr. Manmohan 'singham' is going ahead discussion on tuesday on FDI in insurance upto 49% for foreign partners as reported by news agencies.Now retail - done
insurance - discussion
the third one DEFENCE -any time soon?
hope follwed by labour reforms,electoral reforms......

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To Anon@5.07PM: CRN-91 is an indigenously designed turret integrated with a turret-mounted optronic fire-director. The single-barrel 30mm gun is of Russian origin & is the dame as that on the BMP-2. Fire-control is directed, not automated. All FACs, X-FACs & a few IPVs of the Navy & ICGS have the CRN-91 on board. The six-barrelled AK-630M is a CIWS, not the CRN-91. The AK-630 is far more advanced & lethal than the CRN-91.

To MAYUR M MANAPURE: No, I’ve never worked FOR the DRDO, but have & am still working WITH the DRDO.

To SK: It is primarily due to weight-saving concerns & reqmts. Forwithin India there’s no available automotive technologies or know-how reqd for building motorised TELs of the type used for Topol-M. But most importantly, all structures built with mineral-based materials have limited shelf-lives, whereas in the case of composites, the shelf-life is unlimited when kept under hermetically sealed condition.

To Anon@5.58PM: It is impossible to protect all critical hardware from EMP blast-effects. No one in the world has done it so far. EMP hardening is done only on a selective basis worldwide. Chances of any combat aircraft being in the vicinity of an EMP blast are extremely remote & therefore most aircraft OEMs are not required to make all their protect EMP-resistant. Only those C4I systems are command-and-control centres that are ground-based are most threatened by EMP blasts from E-vombs & therefore are hardened.

To SAYAN: Who requires manoeuvrability when the hypersonic speed alone will ensure that little or no advance will be available of its arrival? Manoeuvrability is reqd by those missiles that can be easily detected when they’re still at least 25km away from their targets.

To UNKNOWN: The MAFI contract is only for upgrading the ATC/ATM and other ground-based navigation aids like beacons, VOR/ILS receivers, etc. Air base infrastructure upgradation inclusive of capacity expansion, hangar/workshop/firefighting capability upgradation etc, is a totally different project. There is no universal international standard for air base design/operations. But if foreign air forces can freely use such air bases, it means these air bases are already up to international standards. Ground facilities for the C-17A & P-8I will be of the same level of sophistication/standard as those created at Hindon.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To ABS: Anti-gravity machines/devices can never be used as a weapon. The Nazis tried it last century & could never make them work. The same goes for the US, where no one has succeeded in reverse-engineering such machines/devices. And no one will for as long as the global knowledge-base is based on principles of quantum physics & quantum mechanics. Anti-gravity machines/devices make use of knowledge bases derived from the concept of parallel universe, something which has only been explained in theoretical terms thus far, but no one has yet been able to figure out its know-how & know-why.
T-90S will be able to match the ZTZ-96G in terms of mobility & firepower. But the problem will be IFF, since both MBTs types look similar from a distance. The same goes for the IA’s T-72M1/T-90S vis-à-vis Pakistan’s Al Khalid/T-80UD/Type 85IIAP. That’s why the DRDO’s on-going project for developing IFF transponders for armoured vehicles—which I highlighted in my DEFEXPO 2012 show reports—needs to be expedited in order to avoid blue-on-blue engagements.
Air-defence coverage for armoured formations will have to include the Akash Mk1 as well as SpyDer-SR SHORADS. They will have to function as integral assets. Whether they would be available in sufficient numbers by 2015/2016 remains to be seen. While Pinaka MBRLs will be available by 2016, I’m not too sure about Rudra helicopter-gunships or Smerch-M MBRLs being made available in sufficient quantities, since their indents/orders have not yet been placed. Up till now, only orders for those Rudra helicopter-gunships reqd for the plains have been placed, since the Rudra has not yet been tested with its full weapons load at altitudes as high as those prevailing in Ladakh.

To Anon@8.34PM: No, the OTH-B is only a look-see tool, and cannot be used for over-the-horizon fire-control/targetting. OTH-B’s target acquisition coordinates are not characterised by pinpoint accuracy. Only airborne or shipborne fire-control systems can guarantee this level of high-accuracy & have the means to transmit mid-course correction cues via SATCOM or by secure data-links.

To Anon@9.55PM: Only one.

To Anon@9.59PM: The order-book so far is ONLY for 124 Mk1s. By the year’s end, orders will be placed for 118 Arjun Mk1As. By late 2015, the IA is most likely to order another 236 Arjun Mk1As. Thus, the order book for Arjun MBT will include 124 + 118 + 236 units.

To DASHU & Anon@11.46PM: Pray for the best & brace for the worst.

To RAHUL: BDL isn’t producing any BrahMos. It never did. Akash Mk1 or Mk2 is not optimised for intercepting NLOS-BSMs. But the Barak-8 LR-SAM will. The Akash Mk1s in the North East will be dual-capable against both combat aircraft & helicopters.

KSingh said...

Guys check out my vid on the IAF, it's my first vid so tell me what you think on YT comments!

Anonymous said...

Prasun can you making any posts on the ongoing infrastructure projects (Road & rail) in North-North East India and their impact once they are ready. There are few forums on net based on this but none of them are comprehensive and lack your perceptive angle.

Anonymous said...

yes lets see bracing for the worst for sure

Anonymous said...

is mr Sarswat listening to you , whenever, you give any input while working with DRDO :) . frankly HAL needs you consultation badly

joydeep ghosh said...

@Prasun da

its not just about building connecting roads, storage tunnels and all weather air stations to be able to fend off the Chinese apart from whats more important is intelligence gathering about activity in the Tibetan plateau and around Karakoram to stop a repeat of 1962.

Oh btw regarding the radars you have shown none are mobile, recently I saw a pic of Israeli mobile radar on the back of jeep, which they use to effectively check activity across border. The radar had 2 broad shining plates placed side by side. India can use these inst it.

About the Gorshkov, RIA Novosti says that 3 of 8 boilers were out malfunctioned due to use of firebricks instead of asbestos lining. However the biggest scare is the rupture of steam pipes made of steel that is not made in Russia but imported from Ukraine. I suspect this will further jack up the price.

Also another news says India is looking to replace 2 crashed Mirages, most probably from France or Greece. Is buying 2 aircrafts a good option?

In your reply to @Suarav Jha you said India will buy from additional stock in French AF.

The dassualt website says Mirage 2000-5Mk2 is the latest and France AF does not have these, only AF of Greece and UAE have it.

I think India will go for 12-15 Mk2 from Greek AF as only that would make sense or from UAE if UAE selects Rafale.

Otherwise some reports said there were 6-7 Mk2 ready built at plant when production was shut, may be IAF will go for these. whats your view?


Joydeep Ghosh

abs said...

I fully concur with you as far as the anti gravity technology mastering is concerned, you had said that the Germans were ahead earlier and now the US and Germans are leading the reasearch for anti gravity technologies, however it should be bore in mind that references of such technologies are replete if u consider the mahabharata and ramayana, which should mean that the INDIA was the pioneer and masters in such technologies once.
Regarding the Integrated armoured regiments, therefore all I can conclude is, the regimentreaching its full potential can only be achieved by the end of 2020 despite its operationalisation by 2015-16.

abs said...

with the PLA placing conventionally armed INDIA specific DF-16 and DF-21C MRBM and IRBMs, it becomes paramount for the DRDO to develop the PDV and AD1/2 missiles ASAP.
However as such missiles are being used, would they be used against North Eastern/Eastern INDIAN cities as inaccurate MRBM/IRBMs certainly would not serve as potent weapons vis-a-vis the Chan Jian family of cruise missiles and NLOS-BSMS as well as MBRLs for accurately hitting the enemy's mobile or static installations or systems?
Do we see a change in the PLA's doctrine for waging a high intensity short duration battle in here???
Or is it merely a tokenism for improving the strategic deterrent vis-a-vis INDIA in which case the MRBMs/IRBMs should be nuclear armed.
Your views?

abs said...

^^ the fact that these are within the operational control of the 2nd artillery and placed under hardened storages could well mean the latter.

Gessler said...

Sir I've read in your previous articles that Arjun Mk-2 will have a 120mm smoothbore gun instead of the rifled one on Mk-1. I'm wanna ask you is this gun indigenous or from Rhienmetall? What's the typical velocity of a HEAT round when launched from this gun?? I think 1,650m/s is it true? That's pretty comparable to Abrams' 1,750m/s.

Why hasn't DRDO implemented some side protection for the wheels like the zig-zag plates of Leopard or like those of Abrams? Are there any improvements done to the Kanchan armor for Mk-2 since Mk-1? Can it defeat TOW ATGMs that PA has?

abs said...

apropos to my earlier post, and after having done quick search, i could gather that the DF-21C and DF-16 would all be conventionally armed, but then the DF-21C is expected to have a CEP of 40 metres and the DF-16 which is an advancement over the DF-11 and DF-15 could also be expected to have a CEP of 40 metres especially with GPS based guidance coming into play, given such a backdrop, would it be prudent to use these missiles that doesnot posses the PGM like accuracy??

Anonymous said...

Prasun saab,

Has the AMCA fighter design been finalised as yet?? How come almost all pics of the design that show up on the net are so twisted and unrealistic and unprofessional??

Do you have any latest info pertaning the systems development of AMCA or those for the Indian version of FGFA/PMF ?? If yes, please let me know...

Gessler said...

Prasun da, is there really an anti-ship variant for the LRCM supersonic missile under development? A chart I saw once on TRISHUL's previous threads of LRCM said yes.

Can you tell us what's the progress on this missile? What could be it's max range, will it be effected by the available OTHT capabilities of IN needed for long-range anti-ship role? What are India's advancements in this field? Any plans to increase BrahMos Block-1's arnge?

When will the LRCM be test-fired? any approx year?

AK said...

Hi Prasun, Don't you think there is an immediate need for DRDO to fast track the R&D process on AD-1,AD-2 interceptors. Instead of relying only on DRDO IA and IAF needs to procure PAC-3 batteries , S-400 BMD systems or other similar systems in huge nos . Has this deployment of DF-21 IRBM and MRBM rung any bells in MoD and IAF HQ ? Concrete steps to counter this needs to be taken fast. Procuring all such ABM systems needs to be distributed between Russia and USA. S-400 is a good SAM complex with huge capabilities . When will Shauyra MRBM be operationalised and enter mass production. What will PLA artillery corps target with this IRBM & MRBM .

Vikram Guha said...

Prasun Da,

Regarding the APS it is said that the Trophy and LEDS are incapable of stopping RPG 30 & RPG 32 and the Israelis are therefore, now upgrading the Trophy to a new system called Trench Coat. Any insight from you will be appreciated.


bradshaw said...

Hi Prasun da,

Can we deploy CV 9A52-4 Tornado MRLS in Ladakh, Arunachal and other high altitude regions. Can it be air lifted by chinooks or C 130's ??

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To KSINGH: Excellent effort! By the way, do read this:
It quotes a study I had conducted & published years ago. It is mentioned as: 72 Prasun K. Sengupta, “Mountain Warfare and Tri-Service Operations,” Asian Defence Journal (October 1999)

To DASHU: I don’t for a moment believe that Dr V K Saraswat is in a mood to listen. For had he done so, then the DRDO would not have issued a press-release about yesterday’s Agni-3 launch the way it did, & without any photographic evidence & corroboration by way of naming the senior Strategic Forces Command officials that are supposed to be present whenever such test-launches take place. Then there’s the statement about “the DRDO’s dream of delivering EMB-145I AEW & CS platforms to the IAF”. To me, the term ‘dream’ equates to ‘drifting’, while ‘mission’ equates to the ‘will to deliver’. Need I go any further?

To JOYDEEP GHOSH: Not intelligence-gathering, but information-gathering. Intelligence is never gathered, but constitutes the grand appreciation from the sum-total of information that’s gathered. Today, India can get at least 14 days early warning of any large-scale military build-up of PLA forces across the LAC. Such a capability had existed even in June 1987, when OP TRIDENT was initiated during the Sumdorong Chu crisis. Both Aslesha & Bharani are man-portable & can also be broken down into components for transportation by Yaks. How much more mobile do you want them to be? They can even be mounted on 8 x 8 SUPACAT-type ATVs if needed, which is what Israel has done with the EL/M-2138 mortar-locating radar for airmobile forces (see my thread on Eurosatory 2012). This radar can’t be used for tactical airspace surveillance. On INS Vikramaditya, the firebricks are all right & are performing as expected. It’s the glue-material used for fixing the China-made firebricks to the refractory masonry in boiler furnaces that’s malfunctioned. And that happened because this new combination (firebricks + glue-material) was never tested & validated before in Russia by the boiler’s Russian OEM. Therefore, two parties are to blame here: the Russian OEM for proceeding with an untested solution; & the Indian Navy’s Directorate of Marine Engineering for insisting on adopting this combination without prior design/engineering validation. China-made Firebricks & Ukraine-fabricated steam piping are also being successfully used on board the PLA Navy’s Liaoning (16) aircraft carrier & there have not been any such malfunctions thus far, therefore it stands to reason that it is the Russian OEMs, in their haste to deliver INS Vikramaditya to the IN by December 4, 2012, have made avoidable engineering compromises. Regarding tandem-seat Mirage 2000s as attrition replacements, the requirement is for only 2 units, not 7, not 12, not 15. Nor is the reqmt stated for Mirage 2000-5 Mk2, because the IAF has already inked a fixed-price contract for upgrading earlier-version Mirage 2000THs. Consequently, only those Mirage 2000B tandem-seaters that ARE NOT of -5 Mk2 or Mk9 standard are required, & these are available only from France, whose air force operates 30 Mirage 2000Bs and 86 tandem-seat Mirage-2000Ds.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To ABS: While there are references to anti-gravity machines in ancient Indian texts, there’s no text that addresses the physics & production-engineering aspects of such machines. The Germans in the 1930s went to great lengths to find out more from ancient Indian and Tibetan texts but ended up being empty-handed. Events as mentioned in Ramayana & Mahabrahata took place 12,000+ years ago & therefore no one even knows till today what exactly the size & composition of ‘Akhand Bharat’ & its links to other continents like Atlantis, or whether its inhabitants belonged to the brown race or were Caucasians from Central Asia, or the blue race, which is believed to be presently residing under China’s Gobi Desert & to which the likes of Ram, Krishna, Vishnu & Shiva belonged.
Regarding conventionally-tipped DF-16 & DF-21Cs, they are meant to be used against fixed-base installations like air bases & ammunition/weapons warehouses/concentrations. The PLA has correctly assessed that in a China-India scenario, the IAF will become the game-changer as its combat aircraft will be operating from the plains with appreciable warloads, while the PLAAF’s combat aircraft will find it impossible to do so from Tibet or Xinjiang. Consequently, the PLA is resorting to the asymmetric warfare option under which it will employ TBMs, IRBMs, MRBMs & NLOS-BSMs for offensive airstrikes against targets in J & K, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, and Uttar Pradesh. I estimate that the 2nd Artillery Corps will have access to at least 500 DF-16s and DF-21Cs by 2018 for initiating conventional air-strikes against India.

To GESSLER: The 120mm smoothbore cannon for Arjun Mk2 will be an indigenous product. Developing a smoothbore cannon is far more easier than developing a rifled-bore cannon. Velocities of APFSDS rounds fired from both types of 120mm cannons will be 1,750 metres/second. No known composite laminate armour can effectively resist tandem warheads & that’s why APS & add-on L-ROD bar armour protection is reqd for any contemporary MBT design. The LRCM variant now being developed is an air-to-surface version armed with a tactical nuclear warhead. Other versions like ASCM & LACM are only of a conceptual nature now.

To Anon@8.42PM: AMCA is still in the project feasibility stage. As for systems to go on board the FGFA, almost all of them have already been discussed in earlier threads, and some of the significant systems will first go on the Super Su-30MKI.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To AK: How should one fast-track the R & D processes of the PDV & AD-1/AD-2 interceptors? Almost every critical sensor & microprocessor on board such interceptors will be of imported origin from either Israel or Russia. So what exactly can the DRDO fast-track, except for the on-board systems integration aspect? Let’s face it: if one wants to seriously protect oneself from the kind of missile build-ups now being undertaken by the PLA, leave alone Pakistan, then the ONLY viable option left is the procurement of the Patriot PAC-3/THAAD combination. The S-400 is still far from being a mature product, while the Arrow-3 is still evolving.

To VIKRAM GUHA: These are block upgrades that are routinely undertaken in response to evolving threats. Furthermore, RPG-type threats will be faced more by ICVs and far less by MBTs. The primary threats to MBTs will always be APFSDS rounds & ATGMs with tandem warheads. Infantry-launched RPGs & ATGMs will always be targetted first by a combination of attack helicopters & ICVs.

To BRADSHAW: Even the Smerch-M be deployed to Ladakh by C-17As. In Arunachal Pradesh & Sikkim, Smerch-Ms, Pinaka Mk1, Prahaar & BrahMos-1 Block-3 will all have to be pre-positioned & pre-stockpiled during peacetime. They all can at best be airlifted up to Assam & West Bengal by C-17As. From there on, they will have to hit the roads. Therefore, there’s no point in acquiring CV 9A52-4 Tornado MBRLs, since they’re not even heli-portable.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To Anon@10.14AM: Such a report is already ready with me. But I will first upload sometime the day after tomorrow the grand appreciation of the PLA's force modernisation efforts along the LAC with lots of illustrations. The Indian angle will follow later early next month.

Anonymous said...

Saraswat says the Agni v missile is only 80% indigenous. What is the foreign conten of that missile. Doe it not violate MTCR to import components for ICBM.

Anonymous said...

Sir is there any indigenous IRST in development for LCA Mk-2?

What will be LCA's max G-stress tolerence by the time it's inducted?

When will the BVR weapon trials commence for LCA?

Someone told me that LSP-8 will fly next month, is it true do you have any info pertaining it?

abs said...

based on my understanding, the fact that the PLA and PLAAF have conducted IJO based live fire exercises and has chosen the places opposing Uttarakhand and Ladakh to place its rocket and tube artillery assets along with NLOS-BSMs and MRBM/IRBMs perhaps should go to show that the Chinese intend to have a limited duration high intensity border war with INDIA not as much in the NORTH Eastern states of AP but the NORTHERN states to uttarakhand and the Ladakh region, especially with the AP being well defended.More so to be able to have greater voice in the Kashmir dispute.
1)your views on the above.
2) Is there any threat for the state of Sikkim and the Siliguri (chicken's neck) corridor?
3)With the PLA being given access to the POK, would not it mean that in the future the PLA could use the POK as an additional launch pad?
4)I remember you telling me about how the PLAAF might use Myanmar, minus the high altitude restrictions it faces in Tibet, as a launch pad in the event of hostilities against INDIA.Does the threat stand even today especially with deterioating myanmar-china relations and improving INDIA-Myanmar relations and with the recent spate of reforms in Myanmar?

Gessler said...

Sir what is meant by quadpacking missiles in VLS cells on warships?

joydeep ghosh said...

@Prasun da

what you say about INS Vikramaditya leaves room for future catastrophe

BTW just learned that MoD issued notification of procuring 2 subs of P75I (AIP powered) from foreign shipyard and making the remaining 4 in India, as was decided in 2010.

1. Do you think making just 4 of these subs is going to have any benefit for defense ship building.

2. Even if Scorpene is selected who will make it, DCNS or Armaris

3. Do you thing if Scorpene is chosen the subs will be bigger than S-BR of Brazil

4. I still doubt if AIP powered subs can be of any help in strategic plans, what do you say?


Joydeep Ghosh

Anonymous said...

Sir, Do all Indian Navy Tu-142 are equipped with Elta 2022(V)3 radars ? Will there be a coventional warhead armed version of DRDO developed 600 km ALCM ?

SK said...

Prasun for the IAF Heavy Lift Helicopters why was the CH-53 not considered ? Its a more appropriate to compare a CH-53 with the Mi-26 instead of Ch-47 Chinook.

Although expensive the CH-53 has more capabilities then the CH-47. I feel the newer 53K would be great asset for Special forces mission as well.

Anonymous said...

Hello Prasun sir,

I have some good questions to
ask you...

1. I read on the net that the Rafale M-MRCA deal will be signed in Oct-Nov this year. I can't believe it our uber-efficient MoD has decided to take any concrete steps towarsd purchasing the goddamned plane? Will the deal really be signed this quick? I'd expect we won't sign it till mid-2013 at the earliest.

2. What's the fate of the AH-64D Apache deal? Will it be signed within or after 2012?

3. When will the LCH TD-3 take to the skies? What are going to be the most visible differences between TD-2 and TD-3?

Will it also have digital camo or plain black paint?

4. Will the LCH procured by the Army going to be the same as the one for the Air Force? Or is there gonna be a different version for IA?

5. What will be the speed of the finished LCH? The current TDs have about 275km/ph, will it increase or stay as it is?

6. Are there any chances of the Armed Forces going for another batch of 22 Apaches in addition to the 22 ordered?

7. Do you have any view as to how the NIrbhay missile might look like> Will it be a clone of Tomahawk or different? Will it be stealthily-shaped like Storm Shadow? Or like the NSM (design-wise)?

8. How many naval Dhruvs has IN inducted so far? And how many does it plan to induct ultimately?

9. IA has ordered 100 indigenous 155mm howitzers from OFB (the one on whose designs MoD sat until now), when will these deliveries commence?

10. Is the Agni-III operational as yet? If yes, has it been deployed?

11. Is France going to downgrade the tech of the SPECTRA and RBE2 that we'll get along with the Rafale?

12. What's the current status of the LCA Mk-2 programme? Has construction of the first Mk-2 TD begun? When can we expect a debut flight?

13. Will the first Nirbhay test (supposed to happen next month) be from a land launcher or air-launch from something like a Tu-142 Bear-F?

Waiting for your views...:D

AK said...

Hi Prasun , How can you say that S-400 is not a mature product. At least it will be more mature than AD-1,AD-2. PAC-3 MSE is a new variant of PAC-3. Can 16 PAC-3 MSE be packed into a sinngle TEL like PAC-3 ? When will orders for PAC3 be placed ? Will US Senate approve the sale of THAAD. THAAD is an area defense weapon. So can it protect an area of radius 60 km with it palced at the centre .

KSingh said...


When the IN gets the Vikramditya to India will the ACC undergo any in-country modifications such as fitting of IAI/ELTA SATCOMs as we have seen on the Viraat and most largr IN vessels? And any other modifcations from India or elsewhere?

KSingh said...

+thanks for watching my YT vid-much appreciated.

+great article-had already read it though but thanks anyway still enthralling!

Anonymous said...

Hi, 90 MiG-23BN and 40 MiG-23MF were purchased by us during cold war. What about thes MiG-23 ? Have they been phased out or are they still in service ?Which aircraft will replace this MF and BN fleet. Another 50 MiG-27M were nought off the shelf and a further 165 were manufactured in country . How many MiG-27 are noe in service with IAF ?

Anonymous said...

Hi Prasun da

Hve u seen the article on Economic times abt India Israel 10Bn defence relationship.The article is good..It seems Israelis are hard selling Iron Dome and David sling to India..But one thing always confuses me...SPYDER SAM for indian army??U have always said that SPYDER SAM (3-4 regiments) are being inducted in IA.But I have nt seen any mention of it in any media reports.Only it mentions the IAF order for 18 SAMs.Though Times of India reported way back in 2009 that 3 regiments of SPYDER for IA was to be acquired.But after that there are no rports of them..Can u confirm that this SAM for IA is a done deal and are being inducted?I am not questioning ur report ..But just one to know why it is kept under wraps??Why IA wants to induct Akash in so large amounts, when it cannot provide safety against PGMs, and Cruise missiles.Instead IA can induct other advanced SAMs.....VMT

abs said...

pending replies to my previous queries
I would like to share with you a few things.
According to the PLA's doctrine for fighting a limited war of short duration, the PLA would make extensive use of the Cruise missiles and MRBM/IRBMs to seize the initiative from the enemy at the very outset of hostilities. These missiles would be fired simultaneously with NLOS-BSMs and long ranged tube and rocket artillery to gain both the tactical as well as the operational advantages at the very start of the hostilities.
With the PLA placing more than 500 such MRBM and IRBMs in Delingha, Da qaidam and Xiadulla, the only inference from this should be that the PLA has realised their shortcomings as far as offensive air campaigns and tactical air superiority is concerned and hence to make up for this the PLA would be using such MRBM and IRBMs and cruise missiles at the very outset of hostilities.
Given such large numbers of IRBM/MRBMs not to forget Chang Jian 10 and Chang Jian 20 LACMs. Therefore what the IAF(the custodian of INDIA's strategic and tactical airspace) should NOT ONLY go for a multi tiered IADS but also go for such IADS with REDUNDANCY to be able to neutralise such threats AS IT USUALLY WOULD REQUIRE MORE THAN 1 INTERCEPTOR TO HAVE A HIGH PROBABILITY OF KILL.
Dont forget that the IAF would also have to contend with J-10 and SU-27Ks and Su-30MK2s and the H-6K (albeit in lesser numbers). But going for the Barak-8 LR-SAMs in such high numbers could prove to be
very costly exercise.
Therefore it becomes paramount for the DRDO not only to field the definitive BMD system but also a cost effective solution like the Air Launched Hit-to-Kill(ALHK)(like the Americans are doing) to avoid such high costs of operating high numbers of TMD systems.Hence the DRDO should go forth with developing such R&D in a mission mode by using loitering HALE UCAS and/or aerostat having such ALHKs along with the fielding of OTH-Radars for airspace surveillance and quick fielding of the Missile Monitoring System along with quick fielding of the Shaurya hypersonic cruise missile. For the ALHK option a joint development programme should be initiated with Israel. IF India is able to develop such systems then it would add hugely to the enactment of conventional deterrence against the PLA.
In the light of the above
1) Kindly give your views
2)Is the IAF acquiring the LR-SAMs in sufficient numbers to cater for redundancy?IF NOT then are there any plans and by when can we look for such a plan to reach fruition?
3)Why isnt the IAF fielding OTHRs for the north? As it would provide valuable warning time about incoming barrage of chinese LACM/ALCMs and NLOS -BSMs and MRBM/IRBMs?
4)Why isnt a seeker inserted in the nose of the Shourya to make it a potent PGM for conventional strikes while the one without the seeker could be used for delivering TNWs?
5)Is there any threat from the DH-10 LACMs that are reportedly stationed in Jianshui,Yunnan?
6)Also I believe there is an urgent requirement of developing atleast 1000-1500Km ranged LACMs for the IAF for which Target Acquisition would be done using the SAR recce sats. The IA can do with the 550Km ranged LACM brahmos-block3 due to its scope of operations.
7)Dont you think a dedicated EW variant of the Do-228 or any other airborne platform capable of operating from high altitudes would become of paramount importance for the IAF as well IA in support of their roles and operations given that a future border war with China would entail extensive usage of EW systems by the PLA due to which the Fog of War might re-emerge.

abs said...

I know that the above 2 posts of mine have a lot of queries but please be kind enough to take a few minutes out of ur busy schedule to reply to me.
Dhonnobaad prasunda :)

Rahul said...

Hi Prasun, Placing orderes for S-400,PAC-3,Arrow-2 in large nos & THAAD is the only option left with MoD to counter PLA's war contingency and its massive use of TBM,NLOS-BSM,MRBM to dceimate the enemy to pieces, inflict huge equipment losses. DF-21 is a 2200-3000 km class missile. Some serious hardware in terms of early warning , engagement radars , interceptors are required . Can THAAD ,S-400 neutralise the thraets fron IRBM,MRBM.PAC-3 is a very robust missile and can effectively cope up with all variety of cruise missiles, NLOS-BSM,TBM and sub 1000-1500 km range missiles. So it needs to be acquired in nos along with other BMD defences for coping up with 3000 km range category if a crusshing defeat is to be avoided.

At the same time LR PGM , loitering cruise missiles like Deliah and JASSM,Taurus, Storm Shadow tye cruise missiles needs to be ordered in huge nos to destroy these missile launchers,airbases, ground assets, transportation nodes(so that futher reinforcements can be brought into TAR ) , at the very onset of hostilties.

Anonymous said...

HI Prasun da

Seems tha US is not willing to share javelin ATGM tech to india..I think this is enough now..and we should think of alternatives.These things are going on for more then 2 years..US will not share tech with India or with anyone..God knows why they wre upset after MMRCA?If u ar not willing to share an ATGM technology ..then what abt aircrafts..Javelin is no dought best in its class as acknowledged by indian army.But now we should go for around 4000 missiles directly from US...Meanwhile DRDO should start a new project with israel for ATGM for indian infantry like the BARAK 2 project..Ur thoughts pls.....

Waris Ali said...

dear prasun sir
I am your regular blog reader ....though this is first time I am posting .kindly pardon my ignorance if i am wrong .I have a few questions
1.has india formulated a clear cut doctrine against Chinese limited war doctrine.
2.what is Indian preparedness to operationalise it.
3,can india protect its borders under such scenario and take countermeasures and punitive actions against Chinese aggression . our political elite read the situation properly and acting accordingly. much time we would take more to plug the gaps on fronts of infrastructures and operational preparedness compared to Chinese .
plz reply sir.vmt in advance .have a good day.

Anonymous said...

Can any significant gains be achieved as Japan is willing to sell arms now. Apart from the amphibious planes for the navy and coast guard. Is there any particular area where we stand to benefit more.

Anonymous said...

hi Prasun,

Got this in the news

“deepen the reform” of the scientific and technological systems and “step up building of a national innovative system” so as to lay a foundation for China to become a technological power when celebrating its centennial anniversary in 2049

Thr Chinese are proactively estaclishing a knowledge network and are promoting INNOVATION so that by 2020 they are also in the league and by 2049 they are the leading tech power. You still think the US can sleep for another 40 years not having to worry abt chinese clout in the intl arena and its military in Asia?

vishakh said...


I would like to ask one question :
Japan has removed the restriction of arm exports .
What are the major systems india can expect to get from Japan .

How is SSK Soryo class submarine for indian navy P 75 I as this has sterling AIP already integrated and has features for Indian ocean and pacific ocean , Even Australian Navy is looking at them ,

Anonymous said...
sir, this is surely a step in the correct direction..but why have only a army lt. gen. as head of the Ind. socom..WHEN It is common knowledge that MARCOS are way more better than para SF(some regard it as merely super infantry)..& even GARUDS are good enough..y not have a commander who is competent , capable & he can come from any service ..?
please elaborate on this news sir..howsoever much that u can gather from ur sources..

sntata said...

Dear Prasun, has India opted out of the two-seater version of joint Indo-Russian FGFA and will acquire only single-seater version? If so why?

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To Anon@10.23AM: Each & every microprocessors used in any DRDO-developed weapon system is of foreign origin, since no one in India has a semi-conductor foundry reqd for designing & fabricating such microprocessors.

To Anon@12.50PM: No, there’s no such project. Tejas Mk2 airframe’s G-stress tolerance will be close to 9 G. BVRAAM firing trials will commence only next year with Derby BVRAAM.

To ABS: The concentration of field artillery assets by the PLA along India’s northern borders is to make up for the PLAAF’s inferior airpower projection capabilities in that region. Territorially, if China would like to covet any Indian territory in future, it will be the Tawang Tract in Arunachal Pradesh & for that the PLA needs to mass overwhelming superiority in manpower & firepower in an area stretching from Sikkim all the way up to AP. And the quickest way to cut off the North-East from the rest of India is to capture the Siliguri Corridor. That’s why today, a small area like Sikkim has most dense concentration of troops anywhere in the world. There are no regular PLA infantry or armoured forces anywhere in POK. There are only some 10,000 personnel of the PLA’s Construction Corps present in Gilgit-Baltistan. The PLA has no plans for launching attacks from this area against India. Across Myanmar’s Kachin & Shan states, the PLA Army can well launch airmobile forces against AP, & this will likely be preceded by massed long-range rocket artillery assaults launched by Sichuan-based elements of the 2nd Artillery Corps. To counter them, Barak-2 MR-SAMs will have to be procured by the IAF in large numbers. OTH-B radar will not be of any use for early warning. Instead, what is reqd is a network of at least three ELM-2080 Green Pine-type radars along the Zanskar mountain range to detect inbound TBMs, IRBMs & MRBMs, plus a network of six EL/M-2084 Arudhra MMRs for detecting & tracking NLOS-BSMs and cruise missiles. The Shaurya is not a typical NLOS-BSM and therefore will be better utilised as a nuclear warhead-armed TBM. For PGMs, single-digit CEP is a prime reqmt, something which the Shaurya was never designed to achieve. When it comes to long-range LACMs, the Nirbhay is already being developed on a high-priority basis. As for airborne EW assets, the Do-228 would not be able to survive the severe weather conditions to the north and north-east, leave alone the PLAAF. Instead, dedicated SIGINT/ELINT sensors mounted on regional jets like the Bombardier BS 5000 will be much better-suited.

To GESSLER: Quad-packing for SAMs involves four SAMs contained inside a single VLS cell that are cold-launched. Quad-packing for ASCMs means a cluster of four ASCMs sited in a directional manner like the RGM-84A, MM-40 Blocks-1/2, C-802As & C-602s.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To JOYDEEP GHOSH: Making the four P-75I SSKs in-country will make sense only if they are derivatives of the existing Scorpene SSK design. ARMARIS never made any submarines, as it was only the marketing arm of DCNI and ARMARIS closed down a few years ago & has been succeeded by DCNS. The Super Scorpene on offer to India won’t be bigger than their Brazilian counterparts since the Indian Super Scorpenes will have a smaller plug-in module for housing the AIP, whereas Brazil’s Super Scorpenes will have a far larger plug-in module for accommodating a pressurised water reactor. AIP-powered SSKs can be employed in a strategic role only if they’re armed with nuclear warhead-equipped land-attack cruise missiles, just like what Pakistan Navy is doing with the Qing-class SSK.

To Anon@8.32PM: No, only one Tu-142M is presently equipped with the 2022(V)3 radar. It doesn’t make any sense to equip a 600km-range supersonic ALCM with a conventional warhead when far cheaper subsonic ALCMs are available to do the same job.

To SK: The CH-53K was considered and subsequently disqualified as it would not have been able to meet the reqd delivery schedules.

To Anon@9.40PM: The M-MRCA will be signed this fiscal year. The AH-64D contract will be inked next year, bit probably within this fiscal year. LCH’s TD-3 is due to take to the skies before the year’s end. It will most likely adopt the digital camouflage. The IA so far has not officially stated any reqmt for the LCH and is quite happy to first receive the Rudra gunships. Speed levels of the LCH will be the same. Total number of attack helicopters reqd is 60. Nirbhay will look like the Babur & 3M14E. No more than 8 Naval Dhruvs have been inducted. I don’t think the IN will order any more. The 100 155mm/45-cal howitzers have not yet been ordered. Nor have large-scale orders been placed for OFB-built 155mm/39-calFH-77Bs. No indent has been placed. Orders will be placed only AFTER prototypes of these two towed-howitzers have been subjected to user-trials by the IA. There is no photographic evidence to prove that the Agni-3’s series-production version has been deployed. No one from France or India ever claimed that France going to downgrade the tech of the SPECTRA and RBE2. Fabrication of the airframe for the first prototype of the Tejas Mk2 is well underway & it now awaits only the arrival of the F414 turbofans. The first Nirbhay test (supposed to happen next month) will in all probability be air-launched from Su-30MKI.

To AK: Patriot PAC-3MSE & THAAD are both far more mature than the S-400, simply because they’re in mass-production. AD-1 & AD-2 are still experimental products just like the PDV and will take at least another eight years to mature, provided sustained R & D takes place. An even then, such interceptors will contain sizeable percentages of imported off-the-shelf components, especially the most mission-critical ones. When it comes to export of THAAD, India & the UAE are two prime prospective customers.

To KSINGH: Yes, the INS Vikramaditya will be subjected to certain in-country sensor/weapon installations, like the ORBIT-supplied SATCOM suite & very much the VL Barak-2 MR-SAMs.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To Anon@11.53AM: Only the MiG-23UBKs are operational, all the rest have been decommissioned. Less than 140 MiG-27Ms are in service today. The Rafale is due to replace the MiG-23BNs, MiG-23MFs and the MiG-27Ms, but not on a per-unit basis, but on the basis of nett deliverable firepower.

To Anon@12.27PM: Every successive Army Chief since 2008 has spoken about the SpyDer-SR’s induction during his press conference on the eve of Army Day.

To RAHUL: When it comes to waging battles, one requires both a sword & shield. While a defensive shield is a pre-requisite, what is equally important is the acquisition of offensive capabilities of the type that will dissuade the aggressor in the first place at best, & force a stalemate at worst. Consequently, both the IA & IAF need to invest in a sizeable inventory of TBMs like Shaurya as well on NLOS-BSMs like BrahMos & Prahaar. Air-launched CALCMs can easily target & destroy fixed PLA installations in Aksai Chin, Xinjiang, Nyingchi & Shigatse. Loitering PGMs are typically used against moving high-value targets like vehicle convoys.

To Anon@5.44PM: Why should anyone require any kind of technology about the Javelin ATGM other than those connected with its usage, maintenance & storage? No one in this world will share anything more with anyone else, be it Israel, Russia or Europe. That’s why BDL till today is producing only the Konkurs-M & Milan-2T, and not the PARS-3LR or Kornet-E.

To WARIS ALI: India does not have any clear-cut & articulated military doctrine against anyone, bet it China, Pakistan or anyone else. The only military directive issued in writing is that in the event of hostilities against China, Tawang must be protected at all costs, with not an inch being surrendered. Beyond that, nothing else has been articulated or written. Therefore, the entire force modernisation-cum-expansion plans of the IA in her northeast is geared towards this sole objective (i.e. protecting & securing Tawang). Regarding punitive actions against a probable Chinese aggression, yes, they can & should be undertaken in both the area opposite Sikkim & west Bhutan, and especially in Aksai Chin. As for plugging existing gaps, it will take at least till 2022 to realise the objectives.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To Anon@10.23AM &VISHAKH: The first piece of hardware India can buy from japan will be the SS-3 amphibians. Besides this, Japanese firms like MELCO, NEC, Toshiba & Hitachi are all specialists in areas like high-end micro-electronics & design miniaturisation, but one area where both countries can likely pool their resources would be in areas of space-based ballistic missile early-warning systems (i.e. geo-stationary orbit-based satellites with specialised optronic payloads for detecting ballistic missile launches; as well as on co-developing SAR-based overhead recce satellites located in polar earth orbits. Japanese heavy-engineering automotive companies can henceforth also team up with their Indian counterparts to co-develop or co-produce 1,500hp or 1,800hp engines for futuristic armoured vehicles. Japan’s shipbuilding firms can henceforth team up with their Indian counterparts to bid for supplying NOPVs, OPVs as well as specialised marine vessels of the type used for floating missile-firing test ranges. I don’t think Japan’s submarine design-and-construction expertise will be of much use now, since India is already well on its way to absorbing the best that Europe can offer through the Scorpene programme.

To Anon@6.05PM: Who has ever said or claimed that the US is sleeping?

To Anon@10.13PM: Yes, it is a step in the right direction, but not in terms of pre-determing which of the armed services will occupy the top post. For, if this happens, then it only amounts to reserving a share of the pie & thinking in terms of territorial domain, as opposed to the operational domain. This proposal therefore requires further fine-tuning from a conceptual standpoint, before it becomes a firm plan like that of the tri-services A & C Command.

To SNTATA: No one has opted out of anything as of now & the final picture will emerge only when the production-sharing contract is inked. Therefore, it is premature to claim that the FGFA’s tandem-seater will not be developed & built.

Nair said...

What do you think about the recent high tech military equipments (fighters, submarines, ships, etc) by Chinese military? Recently they have been very arrogant in their behavior and flexing their muscles. What I admire about Chinese is about the vision they have about their country to take them to prosperity, and the hard work they do. Chinese students really work hard in most of the universities.

But I got the feeling that, lately, these students have got extreme view of nationalism - "they are the best." Sometime I felt that these Chinese ego is similar to Nazi party's nationalistic views on Nazi Germany. But where does this end is a big question.

Recently I heard a discussion in BBC/NPR with a US person that, Chinese govt will not allow the situation to out of control on attack on foreigners in China or attack on foreign countries. This happened during/after Tienanmen Square incident when Communist party supporters attached Western properties. I am sure the present problem with Japan will not be escalated to a stage where arms would be used.

But considering Chinese military might and its modernization, it is very scary for other countries. It looks like, "our land is for us, and for your land we will have discussions"
What is the reason for China to do this?

If China makes better relationship with other countries, it is better for China, and Asia will grow and whole balance of money move from Europe & US to Asia. I do not understand the psych behind these show of strength by Chinese military (or communists).

Your thoughts, please.

In case of a conflict with China, will India be royally screwed or saved with the present state of quality and quantity of arms India have?

However, I am afraid, if India loses, NE states will be gone. If China loses, Tibetan independence may gain strength.

Thanks in advance,

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To NAIR: Post-independent PRC has, since 1949, always preferred xenophobic nationalism over proud patriotism because this is exactly what is taught to every school-going child in China (i.e. the PRC is the middle kingdom around which the rest of the world revolves). Consequently, imagine this mental conditioning being nurtured & sustained way beyond adulthood!!! The results will be obvious & that’s what accounts for the present-day mindset that produces ‘arrogance’ or ‘elitism’ among the average middle-class Chinese citizen, especially the political commisars attached to the CPC and the PLA. But those who are exposed to the outside world on a sustained basis have a different mindset, one that’s more balanced, accommodating & pragmatic.
Regarding any future conflict between India & the PRC, I don’t think for a moment that 1962 will be repeated, or for that matter the PRC will have a cake-walk, for the simple reason that even though India may not be able to match the pace of the PRC’s military force-modernisation in every sphere (and there’s no need for it), India is presently making adequate accretions to ensure that in the event of a conflict, the end-result will be a stalemate at worst, something that even the PRC will likely conclude in its assessments of India’s conventional military deterrence capabilities, and will therefore be dissuaded from engaging in any form of adventurism, be it limited or all-out. Thus, if we are to credit the PRC with superior all-knowing wisdom, then I’m pretty sure that the PRC’s apex decision-makers will desist from a confrontationist approach vis-à-vis India, & will instead try to find areas of convergence in various issues. This is in some ways already happening when it comes to issues like the future of Afghanistan, where both Beijing & Delhi have reached near-identical conclusions & Beijing has had significant differences with Islamabad.