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Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Missing The Woods For The Trees, Putting The Cart Before The Horse

Whenever hyper-speculative media hype originates from certain claims made by an over-zealous corporate house, the end-result always tantamount to putting the cart before the horse. And this is exactly what has happened in case of the Indian Army’s requirement of third-generation, manportable ATGMs.  Presently, the Indian Army is authorised by the Ministry of Defence (MoD) to have a total of 81,206 ATGMs, with each infantry battalion deployed in the plains being armed with four medium-range (1.8km-range) and four long-range (4km-range) ATGM launchers (each with six missiles), and those in the mountains have one of each type along with six missiles for each launcher. 
In reality, however, the Indian Army’s total existing inventory of ATGMs now stands at only 44,000 that includes 10,000 second-generation MBDA-developed and Bharat Dynamics Ltd-built SACLOS wire-guided Milan-2 ATGMs and 4,600 launchers; 4,100 second-generation MBDL-supplied Milan-2T ATGMs; 15,000 second-generation 4km-range 9M113M Konkurs-M SACLOS wire-guided ATGMs licence-built by BDL, plus another 10,000 that are now being supplied off-the-shelf by Russia’s JSC Tulsky Oruzheiny Zavod. Also on order are 443 DRDO-developed third-generation Nag fire-and-forget ATGMs along with 13 DRDO-developed NAMICA tracked ATGM launchers.
It was in 2003 that Indian Army HQ had formulated a General Staff Qualitative Requirement (GSQR) for acquiring the Milan-2T, armed with a tandem-warhead. The tandem warhead was to be licence-built by BDL. The GSQR of the in-service Milan-2 had provided for an essential range as 1,850 metres and a desirable range of 2,000 metres. The GSQR of 2003 for the Milan-2T had indicated the range as 2,000 metres. The RFP for procurement of 4,100 Milan-2Ts was issued to BDL in January 2007. The MoD’s Technical Evaluation Committee (TEC) did not find the product offered by BDL compliant with the GSQR as the range of 2,000 metres offered had only 1,850 metres under wire-guidance phase, while the last 150 metres was left unguided (along with the first 75 metres after missile launch). The case for procurement was therefore closed in May 2007. Subsequently, BDL confirmed that the guidance-range of the Milan-2T would be 2,000 metres. The case was re-opened and trials of the Milan-2T were conducted in February 2008. Based on the firing trial results, Indian Army HQ did not recommend its introduction into service in view of difficulties in engaging moving targets during the last 150 metres. In addition, the requirement was not met in terms of flight-time and overall weight. Furthermore, third-generation ATGMs were already available in the global market by June 2006. Based on  representations from the staff union of BDL to the then Minister of State for Defence Production & Supplies (since non-placement of orders for Milan-2Ts would result in redeployment of BDL’s workforce and already procured materials common to Milan-2/-2T would have to be junked), it was decided to procure a minimum required quantity of Milan-2Ts in May 2008 by amending the GSQR in August 2008 for the Milan-2T with 1,850 metres range and with the waiver of in-country firing-trials, after considering the long lead-times required for procuring third-generation ATGMs, and the fact that the shelf-life of existing stocks of Milan-2 would expire by 2013. The revised RFP was issued to BDL in September 2008 as per the amended GSQR. The MoD concluded a procurement contract with BDL in December 2008 for the supply of 4,100 Milan-2T ATGMs at a cost of Rs.587.02 crore with a staggered delivery schedule to be completed within 36 months from the effective date of contract.
The Indian Army had zeroed in on the third-generation FGM-148 Javelin as far back as 2008 after it had conducted in-country summer user-evaluations of the RAFAEL of Israel-built Spike-ER ATGM. During these evaluations, seven out of the 10 missiles fired missed their targets because their on-board uncooled long-wave infra-red (LWIR) sensors failed to distinguish their targets from their surroundings (an identical problem had also beset the Nag ATGM’s uncooled LWIR sensors during user-evaluations). In contrast, the Javelin uses a cooled mid-wave IR (MWIR) sensor that can passively lock-on to targets at up to 50% farther range than an uncooled sensor, thus allowing the firing crew greater and safer standoff distance, and less likely to be exposed to counter-fire. As far as weight is concerned, the cooling equipment adds less than 2 lb per weapon. The uncooled sensor is not only less reliable, but its long-LWIR spectrum is only compatible with a dome made of softer materials that vulnerable to abrasion in harsh environments (e.g. deserts) and consequently require replacement more often. The cooled seeker’s MWIR spectrum allows a durable hardened dome, and it is better than LWIR in discerning threats in certain geographic locations or environmental conditions. An uncooled sensor thus brings increased repairs, decreased operational availability, and dangerous vulnerabilities, while a cooled IIR sensor saves lives, lessens fratricide, minimises collateral damage, lowers risk, and protects its firing platforms/crew.
When the then US Deputy Secretary of Defense, Ashton Carter, arrived in India on September 16, 2013 for a two-day visit, he came equipped with a proposal aimed at dramatically boosting US-India military-industrial relations. The proposal called for 1) licence-production of the FGM-148 Javelin through 97% transfer of manufacturing technology, but withholding the target recognition algorithms of the MWIR seeker (meaning the seeker’s focal plane array sub-assembly would have to be imported off-the-shelf from Raytheon). 2) co-developing with the DRDO’s Research Centre Imaarat (RCI) and its associated Sensors Research Society (SRS) a fourth-generation version of the Javelin that will feature a dual-mode seeker, hyperbaric warhead, and a longer range of up to 4km. This very same offer, under the auspices of the Defence Trade and Technology Initiative (DTTI), was repeated by the then US Secretary of Defence Chuck Hagel, who reached India on August 8, 2014 for a three-day visit. In fact, by early 2015 private company VEM Technologies had already fabricated a full-scale prototype of the FGM-148 Javelin (see image below) that was displayed at the Aero India 2015 expo.
On February 19, 2015 the Kalyani Group issued a press-release that announced the formation of a joint-venture company with Israel’s RAFAEL Advanced Defence Systems (see:, while the official website of Kalyani RAFAEL Advanced Systems Pvt Ltd (see: had this to say: KRAS is India’s first private sector Missile sub-systems manufacturing entity. Spread across an area of 24,000 square feet, the KRAS plant in Hardware Tech-Park (In the close vicinity of Rajiv Gandhi International Airport) in Hyderabad will enable production of SPIKE ATGM high-end technology systems within the country. It will be engaged in development of a wide range of advanced capabilities like Missile Technology, Command Control and Guidance, Electro-Optics, Remote Weapon Systems, Precision Guided Munitions and System Engineering for Missile Integration. The facility has been designed to meet the top security classification by adopting highest level of security clearance from Indian and Israel Governments. 
What was highly perplexing was that the KRAS JV was openly announcing its ability to produce Spike ATGMs when even the MoD had not inked any contract for procuring the Spike ATGMs. It is from this juncture that the ‘desi’ patrakaars’ went on an overdrive to peddle the story about the Spike ATGM’s procurement. Here are some examples of such rumour-mongering:

One news-report, published on September 1, 2016 ( even went to the extent of claiming that TATA Power SED had formed a Javelin Joint Venture (JJV) with Raytheon and Lockheed Martin for licence-producing the Javelin ATGMs!
In reality, the DRDO has since 2012 been co-developing a third-generation MPATGM along with VEM Technologies. The RCI has since then developed the all-composite rocket motor casing, MEMS-based redundant micro-navigation system (RMNS), as well as a new-generation IIR sensor that employs semiconductors using indium gallium nitride and aluminum gallium nitride alloys for the RCI-developed 1024-element staring focal plane arrays operating in the ultra-violet bandwidth that give better solar radiation rejection. User-evaluations of the definitive MPATGM are expected to commence next year, with bulk production commencing sometime in 2020. Both VEM Technologies and BDL will be contracted for mass-producing the MPATGM. As a fall-back measure, in the event of the RCI-developed MWIR sensor not maturing within the given deadline (primarily due to the challenges of developing the all-important target recognition algorithm), then the option of importing the Javelin’s LWIR sensor sub-assembly for integration with the MPATGM still remains open.
In addition to the MPATGM, the DRDO along with VEM Technologies is also developing a laser-guided 2.75-inch air-to-surface rocket (first shown at the Aero India 2017 expo) that will be launchable from the Rudra, LUH and LCH platforms.


Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To CONCERNED CITIZEN & RAD: Do browse through this:

Meanwhile, more of the blind leading the blind:

To GOURAV: Here's the link:

Abhay Jain said...

excellent article prasun sir

It cleared a lot of mist spread by those media crooks.

There is a speculation that they have also discarded(which i do not think would be a right word) VSHORAD deal.

what's your take


Gb B said...

Hi prasun
But you have said multiple times that the procurement was always for spike Sr and not replacement for all ATGM. I THINK the Spike Sr was the contract which our hopeless govt has even javelin is off the table now? That drdo ATGM is 2.5 km range. So what will be there for 4 km range

Rajesh Mishra said...

Very well said.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To Gb B: I had always stated that Spike-SR was procured for SF (Para) & not for regular infantry. Spike-SR was reqd for substituting the C-90 LAWs that were procured way back in the year 2000. The ATGM reqmt that the 'desi' patrakaars were speculating about concerned the replacements for wire-guided Milan-2 used by regular infantry forces. For 4km-range, the wire-guided Konkurs-M has already been procured & there's no reqmt for its replacement. The MPATGM will be a fire-n-forget system, i.e. it will operate in the lock-on-before-launch mode.

To ABHAY JAIN: The VSHORADS contract is most likely to go to Russia, i.e. the Verba. If the Indian end-users have already been operating the Igla-1 & Igla-S, then the Verba comes in as the ideal replacement.

Intolerant Person said...

1.Sir do you think that Reliance has bright future in making Military Jets by itself especially after it is gping to make Falcon Civil Aircrafts in India?
2.Rather then Tavor 7,won't you think that FN Scar or HK-417 is better choice in Arming Infantry?

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To INTOLERANT PERSON: 1) Let's get 1 thing right: of the 2 fourth-generation MRCAs (Rafale & EF-2000), none of the two have been licence-built by any other customer-country that is outside the countries of their OEMs. Why? Because of costs & product-liability issues. Rafale & EF-2000 airframes are not made through extensive rivetting, but rather through the mating of various machined parts. This is a highl;y expensive process & no wonder if HAL were to replicate the Rafale's manufacturing line, then the costs would have been jacked up by 2.5% of the Rafale's per-unit acquisition cost. This undeniable & is provable through documentation available to both the Indian MoD & HAL. And the same will be the case with the 5th-gen FGFA as well. Therefore, once for all, let it be known to one & all that any 4th-gen or 5th-gen MRCA of imported design WILL NEVER be licence-built inside India. Therefore, the industrial offsets to be committed by any foreign OEM in return for its 4th-gen/5th-gen MRCA being ordered by India will ALWAYS, WITHOUT FAIL, will fall in to the INDIRECT CATEGORY. In case of the Rafale, the offsets package is divided into 2 parts: 1 going to the civilian private-sector (like Reliance) for becoming a sub-contractor to Dassault Aviation for the supply of sub-assemblies for Dassault Falcon family of bizjets; & 2, SNECMA Moteurs teaming up with the DRDO to co-develop a turbofan for the LCA-AF Mk.2 by using the existing engine core of the M88 turbofan. Together, 1 & 2 will fulfil the 50% industrial offsets content that has been mandated under the Rafale procurement contract.

So ONCE AGAIN, let no one in future raise any more questions about licence-producing the Rafale or FGFA inmside India by an Indian industrial entity.

2) There are tens of thousands of Tavors already in-service with both the IA, IN, IAF & CAPFs. That alone gives appreciable leverage to the MoD to negotiate the procurement of Tavor 7s in great bulk & their licenced in-country production by Punj Lloyd in partnership with IWI.

Anup said...

Pak says no to free use of Yuan for CPEC projects.

As expected?

Intolerant Person said...

Thank you sir for answering.
Actually even I would never think of HAL manufacture any foreign Aircraft.
What I actually wanted to know was that suppose,if Reliance(keep HAL out here),does successful fund raising through it's BizJet deal with dassault,and that bizzjet gets high demand in India,so do you think in future,through that funds and skill manpower,they can design and develop their own(not license manufacture) Military Aircraft like Fighter Jets?

STJ said...

Sir, any latest update on Kaveri engine progress

joydeep ghosh said...

@prasun da

thanks for answering to the querries asked indirectly in last thread

but here i am with a few more questions

a. the recent catastrophy with argentine submarine reminds me to ask

1,. why cant submarines also have black box & beacon just like planes made with same material

2. dont you think India which has HDW tot papers can share it with argentina

b. looks like few more of your predictions have come true:-

1. (this has come to zero)

2. (i rmember you said even if ka226 is built in India it will be supplied to other nations)

3. (i remember you said its imp. to freeze everything related to a jet in design phase then start work on building it)

c. Chinese debt weapon seems to be working overtime in africa like in zimbabwe, do you see more upheavals in africa due to china

d. awaiting you iran specific blogs

e. dont you thibk the israel saudi tacit allaince will leave less room to manuever for iran vis a vis saudi and pak vis a vis india


Joydeep Ghosh

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To ANUP: Absolutely. That was always the writing on the wall & I had already stated recently that the dollarisation of Pakistan’s economy is now complete. Here are some more related developments:

To INTOLERANT PERSON: No, it will not work that way because the demand for bizjets in India will always be low. Instead, what Dassault Aviation & relianbce can do is co-develop a high-wing 30-seat/40-seat STOL regional jetliner like the Do-328 that will be used for servicing the Tier-3 cities & the North East. Such an airliner will enjoy huge marketing success not only inside India, but within other neighbouring countries as well. In my view, development of such an aircraft should have been undertaken in the late 1990s itself by both HAL & NAL, instead of wasting money on the Saras. Then, building on the success of this programme, development of the IL-214 MRTA ought to have been taken up as a natural progression as a trilateral venture involving Russia, France & India. But thinking all such matters through demands strategic visioning & common-sense, which long ago became extinct among India’s political decision-makers. That’s also the reason why till this day there does not exist in India an Aerospace Commission, which could have been modelled on lines of the Space Commission in order to articulate the industrial roadmap reqd for climbing up the aerospace manufacturing value-chain. Instead what we have today are entitiers like NAL, ADA, HAL, ISRO etc etc that are all functioning inside standalone silos, which in turn has prevented HAL from having a diversified product portfolio & HAL today is over-dependent on a strictly military product portfolio. Had HAL been transformed into a public-listed corporate entity (instead of being MoD-owned) like the Reliance Group, then matters would have been radically different & a lot better. Hence, for as long as entities like HAL or BEL remain MoD-owned, they will continue to be on the losing side & will be unable to emerge as international manufacturing/product development powergouses, i.e. severely under-performing industrial entities.

To STJ: Detailed negotiations are still underway between the DRDO & SAFRAN Group’s SNECMA Moteurs. That’s the reason why the Govt of India has not yet been able to quantify the beneficiaries of the 50% industrial offsets commitments as part of the Rafale contract. The morons/buffoons of the Indian national Congress are therefore being suicidal by ASSUMING that since Reliance ADAG has secured a Rs.30,000 crore industrial offsets commitment from Dassault Aviation, then the contract for procuring 36 Rafale MMRCAs & related sub-systems/weapons ought to be valued at Rs.90,000 crores!

To JOYDEEP GHOSH: 1) Of course they have emergency beacons that are ejected during emergencies to send out distress signals. Of what use are Black Boxes when a submarine struck with a catastrophic accident sinks to depths that are unreachable by DSRVs & are therefore unrecoverable? 2) For what? Argentina does not want them. 3) Saudi Arabia is now headed for a direct military conflict with Iran inside Lebanon & perhaps Iraq. For Pakistan, this will lead to further violent sectarian clashes, thereby further widening the cleavage of its sectarian faultline.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To RAD: How can something that was never inked ever be cancelled? What I’m saying is that this whole hype about licence-building less than 4,000 Spike ATGMs was a total hoax/fake news. No one in this world ever signs such contracts. The ‘desi patrakaars’ are always overcome with bouts of amnesia & hence they can’t recall that in the 1980s when India inked the contract with Euromissile Dynamics Group (now MBDA) for Milan-2 licence-manufacturing, the contract had involved 4,600 launchers & 32,000 missiles. And when RAFAEL did try to present an unsolicited bid for licence-building the Spike, both the MoD & IA HQ had raised several objections in the second week of May 2015. They claimed that the price quoted in the commercial bid was almost double that of the benchmark price. And moreover, RAFAEL even asked for an additional amount on each missile to be produced in India, which would be above the cost of the transfer of production technology. Besides, the OEM asked for an yearly escalation of 4% on all the supplies, including raw material to be sold to BDL (note, not to the KRAS JV).

In my view, all this confusion was caused by the Kalyani Group, which after creating KRAS mentioned in the KRAS website that its industrial facility in Hyderabad would licence-produce the Spike ATGM (how could it make this claim when no one in India had even ordered the Spike remains totally baffling & mystifying). And yet at DEFEXPO 2016 it was the BDL booth, & not the Kalyani Group pavilion, that was displaying a Spike-SR launcher. In fact, Kalyani Group had also teamed up with RAFAEL for upgrading the IA’s BMP-2 ICV & it was for this reason that the KRAS press-release of 19-2-2015 refers to ‘remote weapon systems’ & ‘advanced-armour solutions’ & ‘missile technology’ (WRT the Lahat being offered for the BMP-2s). For this, Kalyani had teamed up with RAFAEL way back in 2014 & had announced it during DEFEXPO 2014. This same Kalyani Group had claimed that its own design, the Bharat-52 155mm/52-cal towed howitzer co-developed with ELBIT Systems, would be competing with OFB-developed & DRDO-developed howitzers like the Dhanush-52 & the ATAGS. But now we all know that the only home-grown 155mm/52-cal towed howitzer being sponsored & supported by the IA is the ATAGS, which is likely to be mass-produced by both TATA Power SED & Kalyani Group & OFB Jabalpur. Which then makes us all conclude that all talk about Bharat-52 was either 1) just hype aimed at boosting Kalyani Group’s share prices in the stock market; or 2) Kalyani Group just muddling its way through by wasting its shareholders’ money.

The US will do embedding of its target lock-on/homing/auto-tracking algorithms on the DRDO-developed FPAs & then deliver the FPAs back to BDL for installation on the seeker sub-assembly. All else has been developed by the DRDO. SAMHO is laser-guided & therefore cannot be fire-n-forget. Hence it does not fit the IA’s reqmt.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

Here's something that all those 'desi patrakaars' undertaking all-expenses-paid junkets to destinations abroad have totally failed to report on: the IN along with the US Navy & Northrop Grumman has undertaken a feasibility study to determine if Project 71/IAC-1 Vikrant's twin side-elevators (sourced from the UK) can accommodate slightly larger & heavier aircraft like E-2D Hawkeye AEW platform & if such a platform can land on & take off from a STOBAR flight-deck. Flight simulations conducted so far have proven that this indeed can be done. But the practicality of this option will be put to test only after an E-2D has been able to demonstrate this capability at the IN's Dabolim-based SBTF, which hosts a ski-ramp similar to the one that's on IAC-1. So, expect in the coming months to see some flight-tests of this nature being undertaken at the SBTF. Mind you, this configuration-comnpatibility tests are meant only for IAC-1, & not for INS Vikramaditya.

ConcernedCitizen said...

Thanks for the reply Prasun and thanks for directing me to the article. It was a good read.

Ravi said...

Another great analysis, Prasun. Its an eye opener for me that fake news is being created so blatantly. The Russians do it, but I did not think an Indian company would join in the game. Gives one a real headache. Many thanks, and you have been absent far too long! I was checking your page twice a day for at least six weeks!

Anonymous said...

" 1 going to the civilian private-sector (like Reliance) for becoming a sub-contractor to Dassault Aviation for the supply of sub-assemblies for Dassault Falcon family of bizjets"

Why cant HAL be Sub-contractor for Dassualt aviation instead of Reliance group given that it has no experience when compared to HAL?


Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To ROBIN: LoLz! Simply because HAL has never been authorised by any GoI to date to form such industrial JVs involving civilian aerospace products with any aircraft-manufacturing OEM. And this is because HAL has since the 1950s been mandated to undertake either the development of only military platforms or to licence-produce military aircraft of foreign design. And finally, your question ought to be addressed to the previous UPA-2 govt, whose DPPs had mandated that only directly military industrial offset packages be executed by MoD-owned DPSUs. It is WRONG to claim that Reliance Group has no experience in aerospace manufacturing, since it is not just Reliance that will execute the indirect industrial offsets, but rather the JV called “Dassault Reliance Aerospace” in which Dassault Aviation has shareholding/financial stake.


Scorpene SSK's FC2G AIP:

INS Kalvari to be Commissioned Next Month:

To RAVI: VMT. Was busy with For the past 2 weeks on recce missions along the LAC in the North East, where a team of technicians from Chiona's CETC International Corp has since late last month been conducting field-trials of an aerostat-mounted S-band medium-power radar (MPR) at pre-selected sites in Nyingchi & Linzhi, opposite Arunachal Pradesh. This type of radar is ideally used as a gapfiller system for monitoring and tracking helicopter air-maintenance sorties carried out by the Indian Army & Indian Air Force along all forward helipads & ALGs spread throughout Arunachal Pradesh.

Narayan said...

Prasun sir, as per your analysis Tavor 7 will be procured for limited war in Kashmir. But is it possible to equip the IA with 250000 rifles in such a short period (April-May 2018) ?

Pierre Zorin said...

Wonderful documentary on board HMS Turbulent - watch the part 2 and 3 as well from the follow on links of this video!

Jyoti Sen said...

Dada what's your take on today's brahmos test?

Ankit Singh said...

Prasun da,
The National Citizens Register (NCR) is being updated by the Government of Assam. It is aimed at ensuring that the illegal Bangladeshi Muslims who are staying in India are eliminated from the voter list and removed as citizens of India.
How much truth does this statement holds are we looking at civil war?
As always great article sir, every time i see my RSS feed with your name it gives great happiness.

Technology, Photograpy and Travel said...

Thanks Prasun Da , for remembering my request feel privileged

Ved said...

Dear Prasun,
Are you sure about PAKFA. What is HAL's future then?

bhoutik said...

could gap-filler radars of the type CETC is testing, negate the penetrative capabilities of rafale?

china was testing a E-2D type aircraft a few years back. if E-2Ds can operate from IAC-1, would that mean that the chinese would also be able to field such a platform or would they fall short somewhere - powerplant wise or weight... something?

why are configuration-comnpatibility tests meant only for IAC-1, & not for INS Vikramaditya? less capable elevator or lack of space on flight deck?

i couldn't find the question to which you provided this answer (to RAD) -

"The US will do embedding of its target lock-on/homing/auto-tracking algorithms on the DRDO-developed FPAs & then deliver the FPAs back to BDL for installation on the seeker sub-assembly. All else has been developed by the DRDO."

is this related to the ATGM? little explainer for my benefit please.

i think i remember you saying that india was thinking about developing a carrier-borne AEWC with russia. can't remember the plane but it had an unconventional wing design. is that still on?

in the thread "Products From A Self-Confessed “Teacher Without Any Dreams” " the claims that china made - how credible are they?

btw, have you thought about mentoring others or creating an institution perhaps, that can take up your work, in case something happens to you? you are the only sane voice in public on these matters - i shudder to think how ignorant i was before i started reading this blog. what if entities inimical to our interests plan on taking you out? what happens then

Kaustav said...

Can the modified Su30mki equipped for Brahmos launch from hardened structure be used as a launcher for a Pegasus Rocket style small satellite launcher for the defence forces.

Anik said...

Prasun Da
Please clarify whether the above picture from VEM stall is of MPATGM because the VEM representative at aero india said that it was completely developed by VEM tech based on their experience in development of NAG and HeliNa missiles.He said that the missile is named Jasmine. Jasmine=MPATGM? Please clarify.

buddha said...
This report will encourage Indian defence planners for F16

john said...

A disruptive tech?

November 24, 2017

Presentation of the E-Cat QX

Worldwide Introduction of a Revolutionary New Energy Technology

Video Streaming Time: 12:00 p.m. US Eastern Time at

After many years of research and development, Dr. Andrea Rossi is ready to make a formal presentation of the latest version of his Energy Catalyzer (“E-Cat”) which will be filmed and shared on the internet.

so check back for further updates.

The Indian said...

In connection with my earlier question on the Delfin class submarine and your answer thereto I have been searching for your earlier post on the submarines wherein you had given complete details inclusive of the underwater surveillance network SOSUS being established in the Malacca straits by Japan.However I am not able to locate it .Have you removed it?If so can you please allow me to read it once again.

Kapil said...

Prasun da, Switzerland has refused asylum to Brahumdagh Bugti because of Chinese pressure. What is your opinion on this?

Meanwhile after 10 months of charade Hafiz Saeed has been released by a Pak court. This after US delinked LeT from Haqqani network. Lessons for India: Either kill him in a air strike or keep whinning till he dies a natural death

Kaustav said...

Whining is better if we cannot bring him to justice. Killing him does not seem to be an option that the Indian state can exercise or get too many benefits from.

Anonymous said...

Hello Sir,

Was a pleasure reading this article. Good to see home grown products. What are the chances of it actually being accepted and inducted in numbers?

What do you mean by the dollarization of Pak economy? Do they trade internally in dollars? I read somewhere they were doing currency swaps with Iran and China?

External trading by most nations is done in dollar I think. That is why we and others maintain 100's of billions of dollars. Are they doing something different?

M. Patel

Shilpa said...

Dear Sir

1 ) Has the IAF Cancelled the JAGUAR RE Engine Plans

There is No news for a Long time Now

2) Now that HAFIZ saeed is ranting against India
why cannot we step up the Heat on the LOC

What is stopping us from using 155 MM Guns

joydeep ghosh said...

@prasun da

1. while mig29k is 40 feet wide the E2D is 80 ft wide so how come IAC1/INS Vikrant will even allow the side lift use for latter

2. cant the DRDO provide green explosives tech to cracker industry so that the crackers are less polluting


Joydeep Ghosh


Prasun sir

It seems case is being prepared to order only rafales in future by dumping Single jet fighter/LCA by the MOD beauraucrats....what's your opinion about the above article

Kapil said...

He has organised 100s of public rallies (including in PoK) we could have taken him out. Either we kill him in a operation or see him live as a free man and die peacefully in bed. And if you think our forces are incapable of doing this then you should watch former IA COAS Gen Bikram Singh's interview to CNN News18. @Kaustav

Black box said...

Hi prasun,
When will govt of India start single engine fighter procurement.and in your previous thread you mentioned s5 6 7 will be based on Delfin class sub but why can't they design it on the next gen borie class sub

Gb B said...

Hi prasun
The govt is messing up defence big time. Now seems with fighter jets for IAF. One time they say SE and one Time two engine.seems a gridlock. Since Tejas is going to be there anyway which fighters you think we should go for. More rafales? Or less rafale along with f16 and pakfa?

Darjeeling Travel Service's said...

Dear Prasun ji,
It is a real learning experience going through the comments and information shared by you on the blog. So thank you! Kindly let me know the following.

a) What is the range of the brahmos air launched version? Is it 300, 450 or 550 kms.

b) What is the status of the 90° steep dive brahmos developmental status. When can we expect a prototype of the same?

c) What according to you is the status of FGFA. Are we going to induct it in its present form ( off the shelf) in the near future as it seems to have gone into cold storage and we are looking for a face saving exit for both sides.

E) Do you think we are going to go for the F-16, so that we can get our hands on the F-35 as FGFA seems to be in cold storage.

F) Since there is going to be no TOT from the US, So is there going to be a cancellation of the entire SE MII? Under such circumstances are we going to go on for more tejas built with French assistance and subsystems. With a large induction of Rafale's.

G) What do you think will the total number of Rafale's we would procure for the IAF?

H) Is it true that Rafale M is the final choice of IN.

I) What are the chances of GRIPEN NG? As the US under the leadership of POTUS cannot be trusted. Also Gripen is willing to give TOT for the Radar, data link,networking and avionics along with source codes + state of the art airframe building technology.

J) Dont you think the FRCV RFI is tailor made for the Russians and in the end we would have a single vendor situation? Which will lead to cancelling it.

Regards and all the best


Prasun K. Sengupta said...

Two years ago the then POTUS Obama had predicted in his last State of the Union Address that Pakistan would be embroiled in severe domestic instability for years to come. Was he predicting what is now going on inside Pakistan? For, events across Pakistan over the past 48 hours have proven that by & large the overwhelming majority of Pakistanis—who are uneducated & are therefore oassionate believers in religiosity—believe in being Muslims first & Pakistanis second, i.e. they do not believe in the unmiversally recognised notion of the nation-state. Consequently, the PA’s idea of mainstreaming terror-based Tanzeems like the Harkat0ul-Ansar, LeT & Ahle Sunnat wal Jammat enjoys widedspreead support among the majority masses of Pakistan. But the country’s civilian politicians of Pakistan do not like this for obvious reasons & therefore they seem to have employed a stratagem to entrap the PA b y first allowing the Tehreek-e-Labaik Ya Rasool Allah to congregate in Islamabad & then successfully converting the issue from a political one into a security-related one so that the PA will be forced to come out for maintenance of law-n-order throughout Pakistan. The PA did not see this coming, since 1 week ago it said that it will stand by whatever decision Islamabad’s civilian govt makes, only to retract this 24 hours ago when the PA’s COAS ‘advised the Govt of Pakistan to resolve the issue ‘peacefully’ without bloodshed. Obviously, this has now created a direct confrontation between the PA & the Govt & this in turn will lead to further internal volati8lity, especially with both the Deobandis & Barelvis now pointing the finger of conspiracy towards the ‘West’, i.e. the US. Consequently, Pakistan is nbow headed towards a full-blown implosion of violent proportions, with bloodbaths expected all over the country in the coming days that will make the casualties suffered by India inside J & K over the past 18 months look like a minor roadside automobile accident. Chances are thast collective religiosity-fanned public anger will eventually targetted against the diplomatic enclave in Islamabad & Karachi, especially the US Embassy & Consulate, similar to what caused the US Embassy there to be set alight in February 1979. And that’s when the all gloves will come off, & the US & its allies/partners will be forced to commence OP Enduring Freedom Ver.2 against Islamabad next year. The following analyses all point to this:

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To ANKIT SINGH: This should provide a few insights into what’s going on in Assam:

It will be a sheer delight to see exactly how many ‘foreigners’ are unearthed in the end, since it will enable us all to finally name-n-shame all those who had been stoking imagined fears about ;tens of millions’ of illegals inhabitating the North East & West Bengal. As for illegal border crossings, they were never connected to permanent migration, buit rather for seeking temporary sanctuary, as shown here:
To ANIK: LoLz! You really expect a lethal weapon like MPATGM to be named after a fragrant perfume brand-name? Furthermore, VEM does not engage in in-house R & D on weapon systems. It is a production-engineering company that converts design blueprints obtained from outside sources into functional hardware.

To KAPIL: What’s the use of assassinating Hafiz Saeed when there are tens of thousands more willing & able to replace him? The way to go about is to cut the hand that feed folks like Saeed. I,e. engage the PA is attrition warfare throughout the LoC & WB over a 90-day period via co9rss-LoC & cross-border AirLand strfikes.

To M PATEL: Everything you want to learn about Pakistan’s tottering economy is explained here:

And here’s some data/info on PA's on-going Winter Shopping Spree:

And these are the future decision-makers of Pakistan:

Andc this is what they will put an end to:

vijay said...

Prasun sir,

Your analysis?

Didnt you say Su-30 was a subpar jet?

Why did Congress bankroll Ruskis?

Why did IAF want Su 30?

BJP was in on this deal too, so what intention is Congress doing with Rafale?

Can BJP prove Congress is also getting kickbacks for Rafale?

Maybe this political move is for Reliance to shares its BJP money more with Congress for 2019


Gessler said...

Check this out, Prasun ji -

91% of the revenue from Gwadar Port will go to China. The Port Authority will get to keep remaining 9%.

And don't forget to read the comments under that article!

CPEC is becoming more and more hilarious by the day.

jasss gill said...

sir, your thread on idrw?

The Engdoc Society said...

Request you to pls calrify following:

These 44000 ATGMs are meant for infantry only
What ATGMs our MBTs,IFVs and Helicopters Rudras And Mi-17 uses and how many are in use

Do our Howziters are effective against moving armored corps

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To GESSLER: LoLz! The way matters are exploding inside Pakistan right now, China will be able to exploit its investments in Gwadar ONLY IF it is able to deploy a PLA Infantry Division there to ensure its security!

And here are the developments as of 10.30AM IST:

The PA’s role in all this is now emerging, especially after yesterday’s tweet by the DG of ISPR in which he quoted the PA’s COAS as advising the PM to diffuse the situation peacefully. What the PA’s COAS did was that he injected the element of moral equivalence between the legitimate govt/rule of law with an illegal gathering that was challenging the writ of law! In other words, the COAS is indirectly lending his support for the Deobandis & Barelvis who are now rioting in the streets of Pakistan! Thus, what we are now seeing is the unraveling & contextualizing of the ‘Dawn Leaks’ report, which was originally published at the behest of the civilian govt in order to pre-empt the PA’s efforts then to politically mainstream the Punjab-based ‘Sarkari Jihadi’ Tanzeems. While the PA now wants to destroy the credibility of the PML-N throughout Punjab province, the PML-N is not willing now to go down without a fight to the finish & is therefore working overtime to expose the ‘deep state’ that is led/driven/controlled by the PA. I can now only hope that the rampaging mobs, intoxicated with religiosity, don’t end up torching the US & Indian diplomatic missions in Islamabad. Because if that happens, then the US military forces, under LEMOA’s auspices, are now legally authorised by India to seek the use of Indian military military bases/installations as springboards for conducting sustained military operations inside Pakistan. And if this happens, then the PAF will be decimated on the ground & air within a mere 4 hours by the combined might of the USAF, USN & IAF & IN, while all the installations housing Pakistan’s strategic weapon stockpiles will be toast within 48 hours! So, do keep watching this space for firther developments WRT the future of the next-door Un-Islamic Banana/Bahaana Republic’s future! I can only wonder now what Beijing is making out of all this internal/domestic disorder!

Vikram Guha said...

Prasun Da,

In response to a poster you said that VEM does not engage in in-house R & D on weapon systems. It is a production-engineering company that converts design blueprints obtained from outside sources into functional hardware.

(1) So, are there any Pvt sector company/firm in India that does engage in in-house R & D on weapon systems ? I've never heard of any such company or firm but then I'm not as experienced as you are.

(2) In your experience does it make sense for any private citizen, like your's truly, to start a start up that is into in-house R & D on weapon systems ?

Thanks & Regards,


Rajesh Mishra said...

I think China is very silently creating and supporting this disorder and the peoples movement within the Pakistan666. It is time for the Papistani Pakistan to go.

Anonymous said...

if PML-N is to resign from power and conduct fresh elections who would be the puppet leader coming from PA to fight against other main political parties for Pakistan PM Post?


Indian said...

Dear Prasun,
Can you enlighten me on why this talk of getting a foreign single engine fighter when our LCA is maturing as a capable fighter?

Don't they think they(IAF&MOD) have enough time on their hands to develop further variants of LCA given that India has nuclear weapons and therefore immune to any invasion attempts by any country?

I find this attitude of theirs as being suicidal in the long run.I believe they are putting India's future in danger by not taking ownership of projects like Arjun tank and LCA. Isn't it?

Gessler said...

Prasun ji,

If that AirLand campaign does happen, then the events of today are no lesser than very significant building blocks toward that end-result. Couldn't ask for a better news on the 9th Anniversary of the 26/11 attacks.


Intolerant Person said...

1.Sir India Today is still saying that Spike still will find it's place in IA.
2.Sir Pakistan Army has reportedly stored it's nukes inside tunnels and mountains.So how can DEW work on them?
3.And in case they don't work,how can US seize all the nuclear arsenal of Pakistan?
4.This single tweet explains all about the mess in Pakistan's recent unrest:

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To NARAYAN: Supplying 250,00 Tavor-7s will take more than 4 years to be fulfilled from the Indian licenced manufacturer.

To JYOTI SEN: The test was of the anti-ship version of BrahMos-1. The BrahMos-A ASCM launched by Su-30MKI has 290km-range. It is only the lighter BrahMos-NG that will be a LACM, enabling one Su-30MKI to launch 3 BrahMos-NGs.

To VED: Even the FGFA will have to be imported off-the-shelf, rest assured. HAL therefore has to immediately focus on the Super Su-40MKI & licence-build about 50 of them while at the same time undertake full-fledged fatigue-tests of the Su-30MKI’s airframe so that solutions can be derived for making the Su-30MKI capable of undertaling terraion-avoidance flights, since the AESA-MMR of the Super Su-30MKI will have the terrain avoidance mode of operation .

To BHOUTIK: Yes, they can. I had already revealed earlier that China is developing a carrier-based AEW version of Sukhoi’s Su-28 twin-turboprop aircraft. RAD’s question was posted in the previous thread. INS Vikramaditya’s elevators can’t accommodate the load of the E-2D.

To KAUSTAV: The Pegasus weighs 16 tonnes. The Su-30MKI can carry a payload of no more than 8 tonnes.

To THE INDIAN: Here they are:

To SHILPA: 1) No. 2) That is a no-brainer nowe, since Pakistan is now being torn aspart by its own centrifugal forces who are inspired by feelings of religiosity whose seeds were sown by Pakistan’s foundational ideology decades ago. So all we have to do now is wait & watch the fun. And the brutality with which the Pakistani state will have to crack down will forever silence all those Pakistanis who talk about brutalities inside J & K or Myanmar’s Rakhine State.

To JOYDEEP GHOSH: 1) Both MiG-29 & E-2D Hawkeye have folding wings. Have you factored that? 2) Why have crackers at all for public usage? Are there any accounts in Valmiki’s Ramayana (as written by Tulsidas) about firecrackers being used to welcome Rama & family back to Ayodhya? Was deepavali then celebrated through the bursting of firecrackers? 3) That is the solid propellant booster for the BrahMos-1/ BrahMos-A & also for the BrahMos-NG. So nbow you know at last that all suich boosters for BrahMos-1 have since 1998 been imported off-the-shelf from Russia.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To AMIT BISWAS: Single-engined MRCAs will have to be imported simply because the LCA-AF Mk.2 won’t be available for mass-production before 2025. As fior rafales, the MoD is already at work for ordering more so that the IAF has a minimal force-strength of 80 Rafales for all-weather deep-strike.

To BLACK BOX: Matters will start moving by early next year. The IN’s in-house Naval Design Bureau does not as yet have the expertise for designing submarines.

To Gb B: Don’t always believe all the filth that’s churned out by the ignorant/delusional ‘desi’ patrakaars, for they are totally clueless about what’s really transpiring.

To VIJAY: Yes, they credited my blog-thread as being the source-material. The IAF always weanted to operate heavy-MRCAs but no one uintil 1993 had offered such aircraft to the IAF. So when Russia offered to co-develop the Su-30MKI the IAF immediately took up the offer. The Su-30MKI remains sub-par due to the absence of on-board MAWS, LWS & AESA-MMR & all these will be included on the Super Su-3-MKI. There were no kick-backs for Su-30 or Rafale or AW-101. What the Congress is saying is only part-truth, i.e, it is disclosing only the per0unit acquisition price of the Rafale, while conveniently forgetting to reveal the sunken costs of HAL havingvb to set up a Greenfield final-assembly line for the Rafales to be licence-built. If this cost is included, then the Rafale procurement plan as envisaged by the Congress would have reached 22 Billion Euros! When I had visited HAL’s facilities in Bengaluru as far backl as 2015, it had shown me the masterplan for setting up sich facilities as well as the land acquisition plan—all of which costs money as well but which the Congress is silent about now. Hence, for those who know about all this, the Congress’ accusations about the Rafale being overly-expensive for any of the reasons it peddles is nothing but dirty & indefensible pre-electoral gimmicry.

To THE ENGDOC SOCIETY: Yes. MBTs donl;t use ATGMs. The IFVs have Konkurs-M while the Rudra & LCH will have the HELINA.

To VIKRAM GUHA: The TATAS Group does appreciable in-house R & D, since it has institutions like RIFR that can do fundamental R & D. In-house R & D on weapons isn’t viable in India since all technological breakthroughs are taking place outside India. Inside India the market is more for product innovations, i.e. customizing existing weapons platforms to meet the unique Indian operational reqmts.

To INDIAN: The projected LCA-AF Mk.2 won’t be available till 2025, while the Tejas Mk.1A will be rejected for sure by the IAF for reasons I had explained earlier. Yes, the IAF & IA should have been allowed to have their own in-house weapon development establishments, like the IN has done with its Naval Design Bureau & WESEE. This would have gone a long way in facilitating the development of India-specific weapons platforms & sub-systems.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To GESSLER: VMT. Rest assured that far more Pakistanis will die this time than all the Indians residing in J & K who have lost their lives over the past 2 years! For this time the Deobandis & Barelvis have both come together/joined forces & a few hours ago also declared that playing Cricket is un-Islamic (LoLz!). Clearly there’s an on-going rat-race where everyone wants to prove who is is a more pure Muslim than the other. This type of hair-splitting will affect the PA to the core because all those rampaging mobs out in the streets of Pakistan have their relatives who are serving in the armed forces of Pakistan. And that’s why the PA’s COAS does not want to directly confront the propesters who clearly are challenging the writ of the state & are also challenging the Constitution of Pakistan. So the PA is now in a Catch-22 bind: it is seeking an omlette but at the same time it does not want any eggs to be broken! And as the writing on the wall clearly shows, religiosity-fanned/-inspired sentiments in such theocratic states always tend to target the ‘non-believers’ i.e. the Jews, Christians & other non-Muslims & already several TV channels are spewing out anti-US hatred by claiming that there has been tremendous pressure exerted by the US & EU on Pakistan to get rid of the anti-Ahmadiya/anti-blasphemy laws. If all this leads to a crescendo, then all Western * Indian diplomatic missions in Islamnabad are in mortal danger. The following weblinks provide excellent explanations of what exactly is at the heart of the matter:

Gen.Zia-ul Haq’s original Speech Against Ahmadiyya Qadianis:

To INTOLERANT PERSON: Don’t make the mistake of gobbling up all the shit emanating from the ‘desi’ patrakaars. Instead, do read about about the night-firing capability of Konkurs-M from its OEMs:

And both the Milan-2 & Milan-2T use the MIRA-2 night-sight.

Also, do read this:

Gessler said...

VMT Sir.

Here's another little tid-bit, from MQM -

Anonymous said...

Prasunji, This refers to your reply to Bouthik @ STOL aircraft from Sukhoi. I believe the model is Su-80.



Stephen said...

Prasun Sir

Was it Not Possible for India to set up a DASSAULT -- HAL JV
a New Company with Management Control ie 51 Percent Equity with DASSAULT AVIATION

How much Transfer of Technology will RELIANCE be able to Get
that is will DRAL get any Technology Transfer


Secondly what happened to the JAGUAR Re Engine deal

Has IAF given up this project

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To GESSLER & RAJESH MISHRA: As expected, the Govt of Pakistan with its hands tied behind its back (because the PA's COAS wanted to have his omlette without any egg being broken) has totally capitulated & caved in to the demands of the combined might of the Deobandis, Barelvis & Salafists. Within the tinderbox of Pakistan, the TNT has now being replaced by CL-20 explosive material! As for the PA, it had no other choice, since the combined agitators of Deobandis, Barelvis & Salafists all hail from Punjab province, which also provides the manpower for the armed forces. Hence there was no way the PA copuld have cracked down on the agitators like it had done in FATA & Swat between 2004 & 2015. What should not be missed is the GRAND IRONY: while the counter-terror Islamic Military Alliance was having its Summit meeting in Riyadh, inside Pakistan a new terrorising combine of Deobandis, Barelvis & Salafists succeeded in bringing the Govt of Pakistan to its knees! This will now give more ammo to those who have long been expressing fears about Pakistan's nuclear WMDs falling into the wrong hands. Therefore, expect such fears to be amplified & over-hyped in the coming days & weeks, leading to the now-inevitable AirLand campaigns reqd for de-nuclearising Pakistan.

To ANAND: Yes it is. Here's the weblink from Sukhoi Corp:

joydeep ghosh said...

@prasun da

i had factored them

1. Mig 29k is 40 ft wide 58 ft long while E2D is 80 ft wide 58 ft long

2. Mig 29k with folded wings is 24 ft wide while E2D is 30 feet wide with folded wings

so can the side lift of IAC 1/INS Vikrant really accommodate the E2D

only a wet wing or refuelling capability can make it enticing for IN


Joydeep Ghosh

Jyoti Sen said...

Dada.. What about the issues relating to Mig 29k?? If the maintenance issues haven't resolved yet what would happen to IAC-1 fleet? And do you think in the era of aesa Mig 29k with MMR radar would not become obsolete in 2020?

Ankit Singh said...

Can't the HAL modify Do-228 in a way to make it like E2D for vikrant?

Narayan said...

So Tevor 7 acquisition is not linked to limited war?

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To STEPHEN: How can it be possible when the MoD does not even allow HAL to offer more than 10% of its shares for private issue? And most importantly, why is there a need for such a JV? For creating a second Rafale final-assembly line? I had already explained in detail in the previous thread why such an option does not exist for any 4th or 5th generation MRCA. No one else has exercised such an option till now nor will anyone exercise such options simply because they are UNIMPLEMENTABLE. It is tiome to once & for all to permanently bury this widespread but discredited belief that licence-building foreign-origin combat aircraft in India promotes self-reliance or reduces procurement costs. Such blind & cost-prohibitive arguments were spread by previous govets to the sdevere detriment of India’s armed forces & the country’s aerospace industry.

To JOYDEEP GHOSH: Yes, it can. In-flight refuelling capability isn’t reqd if the E-2D is reqd tgo stay on-station for not more than 4 hours during wartime.

To JYOTI SEN: The MiG-29K’s serviceability problems will take some more time to be resolved since the original flight-tests, certification & qualification were all carried out under arctic conditions & not in the warm waters of the IOR.

To ANKIT SINGH: Hopw will that be possible when HAL does not possess the expertise to modify the Do-228’s airframe? HAL has never possessed the Do-228’s design blueprints, but has had access to only the production-engineering blueprints of the Do-228.

To NARAYAN: Of course not.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

The PA’s takeover by proxy of the Govt of Pakistan is now complete. It is now possible for the PA to be a perfectly play its constitutional role while at the same time engaging in unconstitutional affairs! Just like Gen Mirza Aslam Baig had created the Islami Jamhoori Ittehad (or IJI) as the King’s political alliance in the early 1990s, followed by Gen Musharraf creating the Muttahida Majlis–e–Amal (MMA) in the previous decade, Gen Raheel Sharif had prfepared the blueprint for the Milli Muslim League before his retirement, which is now being implemented. The following videolinks bear it all:

To KAUSTAV & PIERRE ZORIN: In Uttar Pradesh's Jalaun district, convicts of a different kind walked out from the Urai jail on November 27, 2017. A herd of eight donkeys. Their crime was a costly one for they destroyed expensive plants outside the jail compound.

Now, if India's criminal procedure code allows the State Police to herd the donkeys into the lock-up, then I wonder why no one was available to arrange bail for the hapless donkeys within 48 hours! Is this the kind of 'Ram Rajya' that the Yogi CM wants to usher into UP???

vijay said...


VMT for answers.

"The IAF always weanted to operate heavy-MRCAs but no one uintil 1993 had offered such aircraft to the IAF."

Didnt the British offered Panavia Tornado?

Tornado ADV replaces Su 30 And Tornado IDS replaces Mig 27

100 Tornado H MRCA and 200 Mirage 2000 M MRCA would have been very powerful for IAF

AND 500 HAL AJIT L MRCA... brainless congress

Instead they got Russian flying coffin junks

Now IAF wants 200 F 16, why do you think they will want Tejas mk2???

IAF should order F 35 instead

And you say USA will invade Pakistan next year

But who will form Pakistan governmint after?

Future Pak politicians chosen by Doval? Or Trump?

WIll PA have political power?

Will CPEC be cancelled?

Will IPI and TAPI pipeline start?

Sir pls share these details



bhoutik said...

just read atlantic councl's "asia in the 2nd nuke age". did you find any of the conclusions, assumptions or analysis there, wrong?

* it states that China has developed 3 generations of nuclear warheads—fission,thermonuclear and enhanced radiation. has India developed these as well?

* it states that China and India lack real-time ISR capabilities for nuclear first strike. will this affect any future campaign against pakis? could you briefly outline or give some examples of what these capabilities are?

The Indian said...

Somebody seems to be using my blog name to access your blog.I have not asked the question regarding the LCA. Hence be careful.

man van said...

China/Japan are building mega coast guard ships.why can't we build one like that and use that as a coast guard flag ship & leave Navy frigate & corvette to other jobs. Four of them should be enough for each naval command (south,east, west &A/N islands).

Technology, Photograpy and Travel said...

I think your LIFT idea is being taken now more seriously Prasun Da ...

Kaustav said...

And very rightly so, the joyride at Kalaikunda is a great endorsement from Singapore for the LIFT version LCA, how many countries can boast of a ready trainer definitely not the Panda Porkies.

The Indian said...

There seems to be a lot of discussions going on with the French side regarding strategic engagement.Could you enlighten us regarding the discussions and their fruits?Also can you update us regarding the status of discussions with the US side regarding strategy and the remaining two foundational pacts the US is interested in getting us to sign.Why has Australia been now coopted into the India US Japan alliance.Something is cooking it appears from the deafening silence regarding these strategic moves.Can you throw some light on why the UK suddenly bowed down for the ICJ election?Something very serious is afoot that is for sure.Any idea as to what?



Abhijit-Iyer Mitra co-authored an article with Angad Singh that was published today by Times Of India.

In this article they state that the Su-30MKI was a Failure because a fusing of western technology on an eastern platform never quite worked. If this is true why did the IAF even go for the Su 30MKI in the first place ?

Prav said...

@man van. It is strange that you think that, newer coast guard ships are rather large.

Vikram Guha said...

Prasun Da,

Thanks for the detailed explanation.

(1) MoD is transferring Army base workshops on the lines of Government Owned Contractor Operated ( GOCO) Model. Will you please shed some light on what exactly is this model & will any private company be interested in acquiring these workshops ?

(2) Why are there so few companies in India that manufactures Computer Chips ? Is it because the technology doesn't quite exist in India ?



Jyoti Sen said...

Dada which single engine fighter would IAF select? Taking adani group tied up with saab? And when the winner will be announced?

Rajesh Mishra said...

F-16 and Gripen were participants in MMRCA contest and Tejas was not there. Tejas does not belongs to this light category, rather Tejas should be called in very light category heavier than the advanced Hawk Fighter. The best role for Tejas can be as a LIFT and also for point defense and may be CAS against Pakistan on West Front. MOD, IAF and HAL have to amicably and objectively converge on the optimum and best use of the Tejas otherwise Tejas will also go away flying like HF-24 Marut. Your kind opinion please.

man van said...

Yes. But not enough large to relive the Navy's front line ships for their intended purpose. One large ship acting like command ship for one theatre's coastal security, sounds great... isn't it?

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To VIJAY: Panavia GmbH’s Tornado was NEVER offered to India noe did the IAF ask for it. Decision to acquire Su-30K H-MRCAs followed by Su-30MKI H-MRCAs was taken ONLY IN RESPONSE TO the PLAAF’s acquisition of Su-27SKs & Su-27UBKs in large numbers. THREE mistakes were made in the 1980s: first, to acquire MiG-23BNs & MiG-27Ms instead of procuring the Su-25; second, to acquire the MiG-28B-12s instead of acquiring additional 95 Mirage 2000s; and third, the decision to develop a fourth-generation L-MRCA like Tejas Mk.1 when the IAF had clearly stated its preference for a scaled-up Ajeet (like the Mirage F-1) powered b y a SNECMA turbofan and equipped with a fly-by-wire flight-control system (FBW-FCS) offered by BAE Systems which at also offered to co-develop with HAL a FBW-FCS for the Jaguar IS. Had these 3 mistakes not been committed, then by now the IAF would have been 45 squadron-strong, the IAF would have had more than 220 Su-25s reqd for battlefield air-interdiction, more than 140 Mirage 2000 M-MRCAs, azbout 350 Su-30MKI H-MRCAs, 150 Jaguar IS deep-strike interdictors & 150 scaled-up Ajeet L-MRCAs. And then the 4th-generation LCA-AF Mk.2 would have been right in arrioving at about 2025, while the FGFAs could have started arriving at around the same time. Right now, the IAF is saddled with Mirage 2000s & MiG-29s acting as M-MRCAs, only 40 MiG-27Ms, and the Tejas Mk.1 & its proposed Mk.1A variant that are sub-optimal (due to fundamental design deficiencies & totally flawed developmental approach) & therefore cannot be used in combat during wartime.

To BHOUTIK: China has strenuously worked towards building up its ISR capabilities, whose details can be found here:

Then, on one hand we come across tall claims like this:

And on the other, we China engaging in such acts in order to overcome existing technological deficiencies:

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To TECHNOLOGY, PHOTOGRAPHY & TRAVEL, & KAUSTAV: What ought to be done is that a combined IAF-HAL team (excluding the ADA techies) should undertake a regional demonstration tour of the Tejas Mk.1 tandem-seater comprising ASEAN & SAARC countries where test-pilots from all such countries can fly sorties on this aircraft. This is the global norm for marketing & sales campaigns.

To THE INDIAN- France-India strategic engagement has been under discussion since the mid-1970s & it was France that had proposed to India to co-develop the then FMBT & its 1,500hp powerpack, which later on became the Leclerc MBT. It was an arrogant India that had then rebuffed this offer! Similarly, Singapore had in 1987 proposed to become a partner in the LCA developmental process by offering to invest 40% of the R & D costs & acquire a 30% production workshare. Again, Messrs Dr V S Arunachalam & Dr A P J Abdul Kalam had then stoutly vetoed this offer! The latter happened in front of my own eyes in Singapore back then. As for the US-India embrace, it is all explained here:

To SUJOY MAJUMDAR: LoLz! When neither of those 2 CRETINS are either licenced aircraft engineers nor operational war planners, who exactly can anyone take their ill-conceived & mischievious rants with any degree of seriousness? Secondly, all such cretins speculating about the contract value of the Rafale deal fail to realise that 50% of the contract-value is being ploughed back into the Indian economy through direct/indirect offsets. So, in simple terms, the nett outflow of money from India to France is only 50% of the contract value. So why all the unnecessary/uncalled for bickering/cursing about ‘exorbitant’ contract value? Thirdly, the reason the UPA-1 govt expanded the scope of the M-MRCA competition was to just dangle another carrot in front of the US, since the 123 Nuclear Agreement was then being negotiated. Fourthly, the IAF never reqd an M-MRCA capable of launching nuclear bombs simply because the IAF isn’t reqd to deliver any such bombs. The air-delivered munition with nuclear warhead is a cruise missile that will impact hundreds of km away from the launch aircraft & therefore any such aircraft does not require EMP-hardening. Cruise missiles available are of 2 types: subsonic, i.e. Nirbhay, & supersonic, for which the solid-fuel ducted rocket motor is now under development. So,be it the Su-30MKI or Rafale of even a Jaguar IS/DARIN-3 or upgraded Mirage 2000N, they all can launch such cruise missiles.

To VIKRAM GUHA: 1) It is called outsourcing. For example, why should the IN have its own naval dockyards for repaiging warships when the MoD-owned shipbuilding yards can do the job? Similarly, if an Indian OEM for trucks already has regional workshops for reparing all those trucks thast are being used by the armed forces, then where’s the need for the armed forces to set up their own motor transport workshops? 2) No one in India prioduces computer chips. All chips are imported. Only the embedding of software into such chips is done in India & design of very high-speed integrated circuits (VHSIC) incorporating such chips is done in India. It becomes economical to produce chips indigenously only when there’s a huge demand for them & such demand originates only from the consumer electronics industry. That’s why even the US has for quite some time been importing such chips from Japan.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

This is what a Strategic Defence Review looks like & contains:

But to expect similar documentation emanating from any Indian govt institution will be a far cry.

Anonymous said...

Video showing PA hand in glove with protesters

Hardik Thanki said...

Hello Prasunji, I am a regular reader of your blog and like your blog very much. Please could you for the benefit of your regular viewers do a comprehensive piece on Rafael Deal and Indian Air Force squadrons problems and it's solutions.
Thanks in advance
Hardik Thanki

Raghuram said...

Dear Prasun,
Do you think IAF would support DRDO or other organizations which would develop Tejas Mk2 and AMCA? It appears that they did not participate in the development of Tejas or Tejas 1A.

How does Govt. allow them to be so indifferent to a project which was started to fulfill their requirements?

Why this kind of negligence from IAF was allowed to take place by our Govt? I don't think in any other country this kind of a thing would have happened. Don't you agree?

Karthik Khanki said...

Hardik Thanki a comprehensive piece on Rafael deal is not possible because the IAF has no deal with Rafael Industries only Rafale aeroplane.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

State of Siang River in Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh:



The Print carried a piece today where they have claimed (based on a letter send my the Eurofighter consortium to India's MoD) that GoI passed over option to buy Rs 453 cr/unit cheaper Eurofighter, months before it signed the deal to buy 36 Rafale fighter jets from France in 2016

Will you please clarify if this news is true, that despite having full knowledge about the procurement price of the Eurofighter, GoI purposely went for the more expensive Rafale ?


man van said...

Prasun Gi.... What is this? Maldives parliament passed amendment for FTA with Indian intelligence know about this? And they don't take any measure to counter this.

Anonymous said...

Why eurofigter was rejected instead of Rafale given the fact eurofighter carries 9 tonnes of weapons payload?


Birbal said...

a new folklore for Yogi Adityanath type Yogi fans:
mere jangia ke ander rahata hai ek bandar; jab pisaab ki woh bandar weisahi bana samunder; bandar tha sadha sudha isliye mantriyo ne mara gudha.

Pierre Zorin said...

Sujoy Majumdar seem to be well suited to be a Parliamentarian - only needs to tweak the sentence a bit: "Will the Defence Minister clarify if this news is true that despite having full knowledge about the procurement price of the EF, the government purposely went for the more expensive Rafale? " (Congress says hear hear)
Speaker: The Defence Minister, Hon. S.Nirmala:
"Mr Speaker, as Mr Majumdar knows, this government has purchased the Rafale at a much cheaper price than the previous government's negotiated cost. The Indian public has saved much more under the Prime Minister's inititative than the previous government who made a decision not to make a decision".
response - "Mr Speaker, will the Minister confirm what the news report said to be true - she has not answered the question".
Response "Mr Speaker, I repeat, this government made a decision to fill in the gaping hole left by UPA and it is this govt under the PM negotiated a far better deal...."and on and on it goes. So you see if the Minister can't confirm how can Prasun? LoLLzzz

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To RAGHURAM: You are missing the point (along with all that I had outlined earlier WRT this issue): It WAS NEVER the IAF that are negligent or indifferent. It was the Govt of India that entrusted the ADA to offer the LCA as a readymade solution. It was the Govt of India that created ADA & restricted the IAF to only drafting the ASQRs. Subsequently, its was the Govt nof India of the day (primarily civilian politicians & their civilian technocrats of the DRDO) that was in the driver’s seat that totally excluded the IAF & HAL from the LCA’s developmental process. The same was the case with Arjun MBT’s developmental process, when the Govt of India entrusted all work & responsibility to the CVRDE while keeping the IA & its MGO Branch out of the process.

To SUJOY MAJUMDAR & ROBIN: As far back as Febriary 2013 & DEFEXPO 2014 I had raised questions obn why the hell were Eurofighter GmbH & Saab Aircraft still exhibiting their M-MRCAs when they had already been declared as losers in the M-MRCA competition. It is only now that the skeletons are now tumbling out of the UPA-2 Govt’s closet! After Dassault Aviation was declared as L-1, the Govt nof India had no business to engage in any kind of contarct with either Eurofighter GmbH & Saab on the M-MRCA issue. In fact, they should not have been invited to even participate in the Aero India & DEFEXPO expos. But the fact6 that they were present itself led me to conclude that the UPA-2 Govt was engaged in ILLEGAL backdoor contacts that defied each & every procedure as prescribed in the DPP. Therefore, the MoD’s rules & regulations prescribe that once the L-1q is declared, then all negotiations on the M-MRCA issue should be held ONLY WITH the L-1 bidder. So, any unsolicited offer presented by Eurofighter GmbH or Airbus Military or BAE Systems WRT Eurofighter-2000 becomes totally illegal, entirely academic & utterly irrelevant from a legal standpoint. In any other self-respecting country any such unsolicited offer AFTER the contest has already been decided upon would have ended in the trash-can, i.e. that is, except inb India where the ‘desi’ patrakaars’ are either totally unaware of the legal provisions governing a global bidding contest, or they are in the payroll of the losing bidders! And how can I prove this? Elementary: when comparing the Rafale & EF-2000, the latter lost out due to its lesser weapons payload capability (especially air-to-ground PGMs); & absence of AESA-MMR. And even as of now the case remains the same. Neither of the 2 shortcomings of the EF-2000 has been rectifcied & the Captor-E AESA-MMR’s operating software will de declared mature only by 2019 at best, i.e. if the IAF were to order the EF-2000s in 2016 then it still would have had to rely on only assurances from Eurofighter GmbH regarding the Captor-E’s functionality, as opposed to the RBE-2 AESA-MMR’s demonstrated product reliability & maturity! Hence, while Eurofighter can argue that its per-unit acquisition cost was in 2014 cheaper than that of the Rafale, it still left unadressed the question WRT the total life-cycl;e costs of the EF-2000, since Eurofighter could in future have claim that unforeseen product-development complications have caused it to increase the price-levels of its spares/product support, meaning the life-cycle costs of the EF-2000 would well have been higher than those of the Rafale.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To SUJOY MAJUMDAR: Meanwhile, just as I had predicted, the BMS project too has now fallen victim to the MoD’s inability to undertake STRUCTURAL reforms (which can emanate only from a Strategic Defence Review) without which it becomes impossible to undertake SYSTEMIC reforms:

And here are the official facts that reveal which states of India are retrograde/regressive as far as prevailing mindsets go:

A total of 61,974 cases of riots and group clashes took place in the country in 2016, down 5% from 2016, National Crime Records Bureau data said on November 30, 2017. According to it, 35 cases of sedition were also registered in 2016 out of which Haryana accounted for the highest number of 12 cases, followed by Uttar Pradesh with six, three each in Karnataka and Kerala, two each in Delhi, Telangana and Madhya Pradesh and one each in Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal. Among the 61,974 cases of riots and group clashes, the highest—11,617 cases—were registered in Bihar, 8,018 in UP and 7,898 in Maharashtra. As many as 60 cases of custodial deaths or disappearance from lock-ups were reported in the country in 2016 of which 12 were in Maharashtra, nine each in Gujarat and UP, five in MP, four in Punjab, three each in Tamil Nadu and Chhattisgarh and two in Rajasthan. A total of 32 people also died or disappeared in the country in 2016 while they were under the remand of the Police forces. These included six each in MP and Andhra Pradesh, four in Maharashtra and two each in Assam, Gujarat, Haryana and Tamil Nadu.
UP and Delhi have got the dubious distinction of recording the maximum number of murders and rape cases, respectively. While UP reported 4,889 murder cases, Delhi reported nearly 40% of rape cases registered among 19 major cities. UP also saw the highest number of crimes against women. It registered 14.5% (49,262 cases) of total cases of crime against women. Meanwhile, Delhi reported 33% (13,803 cases out of total 41,761 cases in 19 cities) of total crimes against women, followed by Mumbai at 12.3% (5,128 cases) last year among the 19 cities with a population of above 2 million. Overall, rape cases saw an increase of 12.4% from 34,651 cases in the country in 2015 to 38,947 in 2016. MP and UP reported the highest incidence of rape with 4,882 cases (12.5%) and 4,816 (12.4%) followed by Maharashtra 4,189 (10.7%) last year, according to the NCRB data. Delhi also recorded the highest crime rate of 182.1 compared to the national average of 77.2. It reported the highest number of murders—479 out of 2,194 cases (21.8%) followed by Bengaluru 10.4% (229 cases) and Patna 8.9% (195 cases). Delhi also reported the highest number of kidnapping and abduction—5,453 cases (48.3%) followed by Mumbai with 1,876 cases (16.6%) and Bengaluru 879 cases (7.8%) during 2016. In addition, Delhi reported the highest number of murders—479 out of 2,194 cases (21.8%) followed by Bengaluru 10.4% (229 cases) and Patna 8.9% (195 cases).
200 terrorists have been killed by the security forces during counter-insurgency operations from 1 January till date this year, which is the highest since 2010. In 2016, 165 terrorists were killed by the security forces along the LoC and in the hinterland. In 2010, 270 terrorists were killed. However the number dropped to around 100 per year by the end of 2015. There has been an increase in civilian killings in militancy-related violence as well with 54 civilians getting killed this year compared to 14 last year. The number of security forces killed in militancy-related incidents this year was 77, lower than the 88 fatalities witnessed last year.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

A couple of interesting projects in which HAL can team up with its US-based counterparts for product co-development under the DTTI:

Piasecki X 49A:

Sikorsky S-97 Raider

AVX Aircraft Compound Co-axial Helicopter with Ducted Fans

Unusual camouglage-colour helomets of the RR:

PA has been able to procure only 18 MBTs per annum since 2007:

Anonymous said...

Hi Prasun,

Bandalbaaz yet again claims that IAC-2 will be conventionally powered but it will incorporate EMALS.

Best Regards

Gessler said...

Prasun ji,

I think the soldiers with the camoflagued helmet covers are actually Para SF commandos, not RR. The RR does not use Tavor TAR-21s as far as I know. I believe RR only uses Kalashnikov derivatives: AKM/AKMS (Russian), AR-M1 (Bulgarian), MPi-KM (East German), Vz.58 (Czech).

However in the video we can also see RR personnel with new ACH-2000 based helmets, probably from MKU Ltd. But the RR helmets do not have camoflague helmet covers (in that video).

Manu Singh said...


The Chinese Air Force has nearly 1000 old fighters, as this report argues:

Which fighter they are going to use to replace such a large number? Will it be fourth generation or fifth? Do they have enough budget for all this?

If not, then the strength of their Air Force will reduce !!! What do you think?

ConcernedCitizen said...

Hi Prasun,

Do you happen to know any further in about the radar that is being talked about here and it's possible inclusion in the t50

Thanks in advance


PrasunDa, thank you for helping to put things in context.

1. This article ( in The Print) is clearly a case of Congress sponsored yellow journalism.

Had GoI revealed to the public why Rafael is L1 none of this confusion would have been created in the first place.

2. Re the stats on crime, once again the Hindi heartland tops the list for most crimes committed. This is in all likelihood a cultural problem because of which crime rate is so high in Bihar, UP, Delhi.

I hope the National Crime Records Bureau also captures data of criminals like hoarders / black marketeer. For example the Bengal famine of 1943 was made worse by black marketeer G D Birla who sold tons of rice in black thereby starving to death 50 lakh people in Bengal. Also this criminal Birla was one of the major proponent of Bengal's partition because that would help him in preserving his illegal business. In Bengal & across elsewhere Mercantile communities have regularly hired local goons as well as goons from UP & Bihar to terminate any individual who protests against their illegal business activities.

Thanks again

Anonymous said...

Did IA and IAF really ordered KA226T? now they are doing sales pitch for IN do think IN will go for it? its said that JV was found in May'17? Why did Russian armed forces did not order these helicopters?


Intolerant Person said...

1.Sir don't you think that we should refuse to give entry to Jihadi Pakistani Journalists in India?Like I use to watch programs of Orya Maqbool Jaan fella and he openly in love program rants racist as well as offensive talks about hindus and Indians whole.And he also says that he use to visit India almost every year and stays with hos "Indian Friend". Question is,will it be attack on FOE if we bare them to enter here?

Intolerant Person said...

2..Suppose if FGFA somehow gets delayed to gets canceled (just suppose),then can't we rope in Singapore for AMCA project's workshare as well as financial stake similar to what it had offered to Tejas.In addition we can rope in Dassault for Consultancy purpose.Of this happens do you think it will work?

vikas said...

1) sir, is it just me or is really the new MKU helmets being given to the army/RR are ill fitting.
The helmets worn by NSG/PARA fit snuglly, but the one's worn by RR guys dont..(

I have seen this helmet doesn't cover the forehead..& many a times tilts towards either side.
sorry state of affairs.

2) also, this particular helmet is available in bolt free version..whuch happens to be stronger..then why this bolted version was procured. ?
3) this helmets could mount NVGs, other optics...but i dont seem to see any provisions for the same...what sort of treatment will this helmet indergo to mount other devices..also will this effect the integrity of the helmet shell..make it weak ??

thank you

Anonymous said...

Love reading the comments. So much info is there.

When reading about the Tejas, about 10years ago, some people were calling it the Last Chance Aircraft, and like many others I defended it. I do think its time we closed that chapter and just start with a new MK2 Design with IAF in the loop. Just take the learnings?

RE PA tanks. Are these numbers enough to even maintain their existing force level? What is interesting is that this is their second iteration and that they are already developing its next major version. That is planning and execution. Why can't our guys do the same? I guess we will import something super dooper and they across the border will tweek theirs and continue learning.


Prasun K. Sengupta said...

Chabahar Port Phase-1 Commissioned Today:

Anti-Pakistan protests in Gilgit-Baltistan:

INS Kalvari SSK Update:

Anonymous said...

If this Quadrilateral Traffic in Transit Agreement becomes operational then Pakistan can totally bypass Afghan to access central Asia... what do you think?


Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To RAJESH: LoLz! To all those who crave for the IAC-2 in any shape & form, they will have to wait for the four LPHs first & then the six SSNs before even a single Paisa is spent on constructing the IAC-2, rest assured.

To GESSLER: Actually, it is left to individual units to ‘paint’ their own helmets as they deem feat to blend in with the local vegetation, which varies in both density & colour in different sectors. As for tavor 21 SLRs, both the CRPF & RR use them but only for intervention-type operations in built-up areas where the targets are already cornered. The AK-47s are used for search-n-cordon operations spread over areas where the whereabouts of the tergats are still unknown.

To MANU SINGH: It is impossible for the PLAAF & PLAN to induct fourth-generation MRCAs like Su-35 & J-10A/B in such large numbers. At best, therefore, both the PLAAF & PLAN can each muster only 450 fourth-generation MRCAs, or only 800 units, which will not include unlicensed platforms like the J-11B & J-16 clones. Meanwhile, as I had stated 2 years ago, the J-15 carrier-based H-MRCA will be used only for training purposes & work at SAC has begun to develop a carrier-based variant of the FC-31 M-MRCA because SAC has now sought assistance from RAC-MiG to help design the carrier-based FC-31’s landing gear, while at the same time contracting ROSTEC for importing off-the-shelf the RD-93MA turbofans.

To CONCERNED CITIZEN: It is still in the R & D stage & mimmicks what the US is already flight-testing at the moment.

To SUJOY MAJUMDAR: Actually, way before ther Birlas, it was the earlier Jain Marwari business folks who had sided with Sir Robert Clive of the East India Company because they were finding it impossible to operate their businesses due to the decadence of the Mughals & Nawabs of that time. Today too, it is all about making money by milking the unsuspecting, as this interesting ground-report from Ayodhya proves:

What’s most hilarious is one self-styled ‘Bhagwaan’ claiming that local Indian currency isn’t Lakshmi, but foreign exchange earning is! This is the kind of senseless/outrageous religiosity-inspired mess that Messrs L K Advani & the late Pramod Majahan helped usher in! No wonder the self-styled ‘Yogi’ as CM of UP is asddled with a State Police that, instead of filing an FIR against the owner of a errant herd of donkeys, instead decides to confine the 7 donkeys into lock-up for 4 days!

To ROBIN: Don’t worry, it is just a useless piece of ‘paid news’ that has no head or tail.

To INTOLERANT PERSON: LoLz! What makes you place utmost reliance on ADA’s ability to develop the AMCA when it can’t even develop the Tejas Mk.1 as an optiomised weapons platform? Dassault isn’t working on 5th-gen MRCAs since it wants to incorporate several 5th-gen vtechnologies into the Rafale’s airframe. Instead, both Dassault & Airbus Military are focussing on developing 6th gen MRCAs.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To VIKAS: As for the SOPs, no one in J & K is authorised to undertake intervention-type counter-terror operations at nighttime. So, after sunset if a terrorist hideout is located in urban areas or semi-urban areas, then the immediate vicinity is always sanitised & the final decisive operation is undertaken just after dawn or just before duisk. Hence, NVDs are not reqd.

To M PATEL: Yes, it will be logical to invest in the LCA-AF Mk.2, but not with the existing model of project management. The entire developmental effort will have to be IAF-led/-driven/-controlled. Most importantly, project financing has to be secured & this is the most difficult part. Unless the project financing methodology is first worked out, nothing else will move forward.

As for MBTs, in terms of numbers, the PA now is inferior to the IA in terms of numbers of contemporary-design MBTs i9n service. Same goes for the MBT developmental cycle. The Al Khalid-2 will be a full generation behind the Arjun Mk.1A at a time when the Mk.1A is now unearing production-stage & the Arjun Mk.2 made with HNS is now under prototype development. No one in either China or Pakistan has even begun making armoured vehicles made of HNS.

To RON: These videoclips further explain the ecopnomic competitiveness of Chabahar when compared to Gwadar:

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

The latest analysis on the state of Pakistan’s Economy:

Kazakhstan Ambassador Bulat Sarsenbayev revealing exactly how many thousands of tonnes of uranium ore has been exported to India to date:

Reaping the Whirlwind of the Anti-Blasphemy Law in Pakistan:

And for those who are interested in tracing the origins & perils of a state born out of religiosity-inspired ideology, here are some crucial reading materials:

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

CIA Director Mike Pompeo at Reagan National Defense Forum 2017 2-12-2017:

Deepak said...

Prasun Da,
According to Lt. Gen. HS Panag who was former GOC-in-C Northern Command, in an event of war with china, Indian Army could capture the entire Kailash mountain range.
My question is that is that is it possible to do so and can Indian Army hold the entire Kailash-Mansarovar area from subsequent counter attacks by china?

joydeep ghosh said...

@prasun da

1. you had said once advani was the most divisive politician, now its being confirmed

2. could this be true

3. to me Piasecki X 49A seems to be more complicated


Joydeep Ghosh

bhoutik said...

how does the Kamov Ka-90 concept compare to the american ones

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To DEEPAK: Nowhere does Lt Gen Panag say anything about capturing Kailash Mansarovar. Instead, he mentions the mountain range whose western tip lies astride that part of Panggong Tso lake that is controlled by China. So, at best, as far as the IA’s offensive plans go, it has the ability & armoured/mechanized infantry capacity to break out eastwards up to a distance of 80km to deny the PLA access to area around the lower reaches of the Depsang Plain & the lower reaches of the western part of the Kailash mountain range near Panggong Tso, i.e. seize & fortify the high-ground in which heliborne infantry are also meant to be used for assaulting those hilltops that are now occupied by the PLA garrisons starting from the Chushul/Trig Heights areas.

To JOYDEEP GHOSH: 2) LoLz! China has been developing E-MALS sub-systems at a place in Shanghai since the late 1990s. To therefore claim that it has mastered all relevant technologies is the height of lunacy & mischievous ignorance. Do check out my earlier thread on ‘THE SAGA of CV-16 LIAONING’ in which all data on such shore-based R & D facilities are highlighted through GoogleEarth imagery.

To BHOUTIK: Ka-90/Ka-92 remain as concepts till this day & no experimental flight-test platforms have flown so far. In contrast, the US-origin platforms have already flight-tested & validated several optional configurations & are available for mass-production & for export.

Meanwhile, looks like Yemen’s Houti rebels have fired a ground-launched version of Iran’s Soumar LACM, which in reality is an ex-Ukrainian Kh-55 LACM:

Soumar LACM:

The CAS of the IAF was euphoric yesterday at the official residence of the IN’s CNS (during the Navy Day’s evening reception) about his recent ’combat sortie’ on-board a French Air Force Rafale. Of course most of the listening audience (especially the ‘desi patrakaars’) did not quite catch the meaning of this & presumed that it was a weapons-dropping sortie. They still can;t figure out what exactly terrain-avoidance flight profile is all about!

sbm said...

Prasun, I am not quite getting what the CAS was meaning myself. I mean the Rafale has an exceptional terrain avoidance capability and it's a great plus.
On to the depleting squadron strength, is it possible that an option could be for the direct purchase of 2 more Rafale squadrons (with extra reserves to bring strength to 80 aircraft total), and order an additional 5-7 Su-30MKI upgrade squadrons as new production while upgrading the fleet? I mean continuing Su-30MKI production is an easy option - not ideal of course - but it is an option. Is that being considered?

The Indian said...

Your views regarding
The situation in Pakistan is turning from bad to worse.Any opinion on further deterioration and which direction the situation is likely to proceed.Your prediction for the rough period for the air land campaign.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To SBM: What the IAF’s CAS was talking about was his experience on-board the Rafale when doing terrain-avoidance flight profiles while at the same time undertaking airspace search-n-track (i.e. AESA-MMR’s interleaved operating mode. Not many within the IAF & IN are aware of flying using such interleaved modes of operation & only after the upgraded Jaguar IS/DARIN-3 platforms with EL/M-2052 AESA-MMRs start getting inducted in larger numb ers will the word & operational expertise spread around.

As for additional Rafales, the IAF has already specified a minimum baseline fleet strenmgth of 80 platforms. For Su-30MKI fleet strength, the stated reqmt is for 350 platforms, inclusive of the first 50 new-build Super Su-30MKIs coming off-the-shelf from Irkutsk. Procuring 100+ additional Su-30MKIs is a no-brainer since it will take money away from the single-engine L-MRCA project, be it for an imported option or for the LCA-AF Mk.2. And I’m not even factoring in the FGFA procurement effort. The only determining factor in all these is FINANCIAL VIABILITY. Because the way matters are moving, if the SAFRAN/SNECMA Moteurs industrial offsets component of the Rafale deal involves co-developmnent of a derivative of the M88 turbofan, then the LCA-AF’s will have to be powered by M88 turbofans & not the F414s—purely for reducing direct operating costs & simplifying the airworthiness certification process. But this will have to be an IAF-led/-driven process, with HAL acting as prime industrial contractor & the DRDO labs acting as sub-systems providers to HAL. Can such a project management set-up be worked out? Yes. But will it? Who knows!

To THE INDIAN: The timeframe remains the same, i.e. from next year onwards once the snow starts melting in J & K. In any case, the quantum of US drone strikes inside Pakistan’s FATA is steadily increasing while Iran’s China-supplied UAVs & UCAVs are also flying highter quantum of sorties in the Sestan-Balochistan area. So, Pakistan is now having to confront an active 3-front situation & the PA & all PA-controlled paramilitary forces (Rangers & Frontiet Corps) are being severely stretched & fatigued. So, to the layman, what does all this indicate?

bhoutik said...

prasun bhai at 4 minutes into this IN video --- --- is that an original CAD image of the Arihant class?

Srinivasa Nanduri said...

Hi Prasun,

What do you think of the FTA Maldives had with China and China Myanmar Coridor or the new Railway line to Nepal that China is planning to build.

And what counter measures are taken by India on these.

Srinivasa Nanduri

sbm said...

Thanks Prasun. When you say procuring another 100 Su-30MKI is a no-brainer, you mean that it won't happen or that it will? I'd have thought that pushing in that direction might be cost effective with the financial constraints? With respect to your Tejas Mk.2 project I agree entirely

sbm said...

Realised that I wasn't too clear on what I asked. Will the IAF get a total of around 350 Su-30MKIs and 80 Rafales? I am not thinking in terms of 100 Su-30 beyond the 350. Right now, AFAIK, only 272 have been contracted for.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To BHOUTIK: Never go by pure visual-glancing when the visuals clearly contain text. In that visual, there is clearly a marked LOX storage tank. Do SSBNs carry such LOX tanks? Or do AIP-equipped SSKs? So, in all probability you paid more attention to the 4 VLS cells & automatically ASSUMED that they were meant for SLBMs. Furthermore, the rest of the promo clearly states that the IN has designed only destroyers, frigates & corvettes. In other words, no submarine of any time has emerged from the IN’s Naval Design Bureau’s Submarine Design Group thus far. Thus, the design visual that you are referring to has been sourced from an external, non-IN source and it is of a generic nature & not type design-specific. Again, don’t be in a rush to join those who hace no respect for the laws of physics, like this nitwit:

Of course, this nitwit like the Raksha Mantri continues to be in an ever-confused state & is unable to solve the institutional turf-wars underway within Army HQ between Directorate General Information Systems & Directorate of Signals. Consequently, the Tactical Comms System (TCS) architecture (for replacing AREN) isn't being completed & as a direct result of this, the Battlefield Management System (BMS) & Battlefield Surveillance System (BSS) networks too are stuck in limbo!!! And due to all this, even the Battalion-level F-INSAS is lost somewhere in between. This ‘desi’ patrakaar does not even realise that all tactical networks like BMS & BSS use radios that are identical to those used for tactical voice comms (on vehicles & backpack radios) & therefore they all need to function under a common user-conduit, i.e. the TCS where different spectrum frequencies are allotted for voice/imagery/data comms transmission/reception. Consequently, unless the TCS architecture & hardware aspects are finalised & ordered, the BMS & BSS networks too will not be service-inducted. But the ‘desi’ patrakaars are obviously ASSUMING that each network (TCS, BMS. BSS) are separate/standalone & can operate on their own!!!

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

BTW, for those who wanted to know how many BrahMos-1 missiles have been service-inducted to date (over the past 14 years), here are the figures:

Godrej Aerospace delivers 100th set of BrahMos airframe assemblies.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To SBM: The IAF will get the yet-to-be-ordered Su-30MKIs in future to ensure that the Su-30MKI fleet remains 350-strong. But ordering 100 more Su-30MKIs (over & above the 350) just for the sake of arresting the IAF’s declining combat aircraft fleet is a no-brainer simply because the IAF’s aircraft shortages are in 2 arenas: tactical interdiction & defensive counter-air interception. And the Su-30MKI cannot perform either of these roles. Both tactical interdiction & QRA-capable interception require workhorses, i.e. aircraft that can be swiftly turned around & be used at least thrice daily. Any Su-30MKI sortie takes hours of advance preparation & no one existing operator of the Su-30 family of H-MRCA uses such aircraft for either QRA scrambles or for tactical interdiction. One just has to witness the demonstrated usage of Su-30MKIs during IAF firepower demos to see that the Su-30MKI releases its OFAB-100/120, OFAB-250/270, HSLD-150, HSLD-250 & HSLD-1000 gravioty bombs from an altitude of 5,000 feet ASL, i.e. medium-altitude deep-strike sorties. Nor does the Su-30MKI use B-8 or B-13 rocket pods for firing S-80 or S-13 80mm/122mm rockets. Only the PLAAF uses such rockets & that too on only its single-seat Su-27SKs & J-11As. But for QRA the PLAAF & PLAN both use the single-seat, single-engined J-10A/B.

It is also an established fact that the IAF has been made to procure the Su-30MKIs from HAL at twice the original per-unit acquisition cost, i.e. an Su-30MKI built at Irkutsk costs half that of a HAL-built Su-30MKI & yet at the end of the day the mission-critical sub-systems & ancillaries (rotables & consumables) are all imported, for instance cockpit canopies, brake-pads etc etc. Even for the MiG-21s, OFB-made brake parachutes were imported from the 1960s right up to the mid-1990s from both the USSR & Romania’s Aerostar SA! Hence, looking back, had all the Su-30MKIs been procured off-the-shelf, then HAL would have been free financially well-placed to develop its HTT-35 BTT, the HJT-36 not as an IJT but as an AJT, followed by the LUH & then the LCH, in that order from the mid-1990s till 2017. This could have been possible had there been an independent Aerospace Commission (like ISRO) charged with articulating an industrial roadmap. Instead, today we have the PC-7 Mk.2 BTTs, a stillborn HJT-36 IJT, Hawk Mk.132 AJTs & the on-order AH-64Es. So, licence-building foreign-design military aircraft has NEVER been a financially sound proposition. And it will be impossible to licence-build any 4th-gen or 5th-gen MRCA. Just take a look at how the Rafale is assembled & how each sub-structure is modularly integrated, with each module being completed in separate workshops:

Su-30MKIs in both Russia & India never employ such modular construction methodologies, but the LCA-AF Mk.2 will be required to embrace those very same series-production methodologies as those employed for the Rafale. So, if someone out in the MoD can utilise his/her common-sense, then it will emerge that such sub-structures can be supplied by any qualified vendor through out-sourcing, with HAL undertaking only final-assembly, test & integration work. If embraced, then this concept will produce quicker delivery schedules & will also drastically reduce per-unit acquisition costs of the LCA-AF Mk.2.

sbm said...

Thanks - I understand clearly. So you see 350 MKIs and 80 Rafales forming the core capability. The question is what next? Does it make sense to have a locally assembled SEF or better to purchase the type and focus on perhaps a revised LCA-AF Mk.2?

Gopal said...

Hello Mr. Sengupta,
I have been an avid reader of your blog for many years and do relish your comments section. I am no engineer let alone a aeronautical one, but an aviation enthusiast and as many readers of your blog been following the the tejas saga for many years. For obvious reason being an Indian we would like to see a successful outcome for this program. With all the discussion pointing out to the cooperation with Dassault for me it seems tajas MK.2 might end up being more analogous to a single engine Rafale, which might not be a bad bet. Having spent so much effort in absorbing the technologies and the Rafale know how and in the end might end being cheaper to build and operate.

pimpale said...

Have u written any article on 26/11 attack kindly give link to it...!!!

bhoutik said...

thats actually why i asked you prasun bhai - cause i remember you saying several times that IN's NDB didn't design subs, and i did notice the LOX tanks. so when i saw the 4 VLS cells and that small hump just behind the tower - looked so similar to Arihant - didn't know what to make of it.

Anonymous said...

Sir, what do you make of the reports from pak after the SoD visit?

They ridiculed him and the US in their press, before and during his visit.

Some of their opinion writers were suggesting to start to send more body bags to uncle sam as a reminder of their control.

Then their begging hats were out. If you want us to do more, we have no capability and no money. Wonder what uncle will offer them.

I have been told that PA have over the last 10years not only using their paramilitries (~300K) but also their National Guard units like Pasban, which number around 300K. Even in NWFP/KPK apparantly most of the work is now being under taken by the police, which has seen massive improvement, due to uncle sams money and training and PTI.

Their PA current orbit according to chatter on their defence websites shows around 50% drop compared to 3 years ago on their western front.

What are your thoughts? If we do go over the line, what surprise can await us? You know the well known saying that no war plan has ever lasted morethan a day, once the war starts.


Anonymous said...

1) Sir, what is the status of P17A frigates? Funding and construction started?

2) What is the deployment of IA in Ladakh-Himachal-Uttarakhand sectors?

3) Can you please educate me whether truck launched Brahmos land to sea variant be used as mobile coastal battery? What type of radar etc will it need? How far can such radars identify and target an enemy warship?

4) Sir, you said same mistakes as Tejas are being repeated on LCH, if so, what do we expect end product to be? How good will it be, as they are claiming to begin production of final variant by 2018-19?

5) Inclusive of Rudras, exports and latest 73 unit order, how many Dhruvs have been ordered and how many have been produced till date?

Thanks in advance.


Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To SBM: The 350 Su-30MKIs will have to be joined by at least 120 Rafales as deep-strike capable MMRCAs (80 isn’t enough & as more are ordered, the per0unit cost will drop proportionally). They will be accompanied by 130 Jaguar IS/DARIN-3 as tactical interdictors. That still leaves a void for at least 150 MRCAs reqd for air-defence & battlefield air interdiction & this is where the SEF comes in & if procured off-the-shelf, deliveries can be faster/quicker to ensure 42 combat squadrons by 2025. But once this option is exercised along with that for additional Rafales (in order to reach the 120 mark), there will be absolutely no money left to procure any other type of combat aircraft for as long as the existing project management matrix for LCA-AF Mk.2 remains, along with HAL’s inability to raise its own developmental funds from the capital markets (i.e. for as long as it remains a DPSU, it will be unable to develop the LCA-AF Mk.2). Coupled together, these reasons are more than enough for the IAF to say that there’s no operational reqmt for LCA-AF Mk.2 & therefore the project ought to be terminated as a technology demonstration effort.

To GOPAL: VMT, but the IAF cannot possibly be expected to wait for another 8 years for the LCA-AF Mk.2 to emerge, since a very heavy price will have to be paid for awaiting the arrival of the LCA-AF Mk.2, even with the technical assistance of OEMs like Dassault Aviation & SAFRAN/Snecma Moteurs. Most importantly, once the IAF starts procuring imported SEFs, there will not be any funding available for LCA-AF Mk.2 or Tejas Mk.1A.

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To AGGARWAL: What control? Can the PAF defend its airspace & prevent US drone strikes? Will the PAF be able to withstand the US military onslaught in case even a single US drone is shot down by Pakistan? What has been the subject of international ridicule has in fact been the PAF’s inability/unwillingness to defend Pakistan’s airspace ever sibce the US drone strikes began in 2004! Will anyone then call the PAF a respectable air force when it has already lost all self-respect? What will happen in case the US refuses student visas for the children of almost all the senior military officers of the PA, PAF & PN? And despite the force-expansion of the FC & Levies, why has there been no let-down in the number of terror attacks inside KPK & Balochistan? Why are the TTP cadres coming back to Pakistan still able to find sympathizers within FATA & KPK? Why is the PA still engaged in LIC operationbs once again inside South Waziristan? And for those who don’t know or are wearing blinkers, the PA’s deployment footprint along the Durand Line has actually increased due to all this & also due to the need for dominating the high-ground in ALL those areas where the fencing is being undertaken. It is known as seize & hold & this can be done only by the Army since paramilitaries & police forces don’t have mortars or howiizers or attack helicopters for delivering standoff firepower. And that’s precisely why the Pak Foreign Minister recently wrote to his Indian counterpart for negotiations on how to reduce the quantum of military clashes along the IB & LoC. In other words, the PA wants to re-dep-loy additional NLI battalions from their existing positions along the LoC to new positions along the Durand Line, especially over high-altitude passes since they are acclimatised, unlike the bulk of the PA’s manpower who are used to operating in thje plains & deserts. Hence, the ONLY SURPRISE awaiting the IA on the ither side of the LoC will be the sheer thinness of the PA’s forward deployment pattern that at best will be able to0 offer only feeble resistance at best.

To VSJ: 1) Yes, work has started at MDL. 2) What do you mean by that? 3) Mobile coastal ASCM Batteries can strike at targets only until the hoprizon & not beyond that. Hence, the BrahMos-1 will not be suitable & it will be a terribly under-utilised product for such missions. 4) The mistakes relate to a sequential product development process instead of a concurrent process being undertaken, i.e. while the flightworthy airframe is being developed, at the same time its weaponisation packages also must be developed at the same time. This hasn’t been done just as it wasn’t done for the ALH & that’s why the Rudra emerged several years after the emergence of the Dhruv ALH. 5) About 150 or slightly more.

Anonymous said...

From ur words want true story behind how GOI acquired Submarime arm from USSR and not from UK despite the fact aircraft carrier 1st was brought off shelf from UK


jasss gill said...

sir, how many Tunguska air defence systems operated by IA, is IA upgrade this systems or is a venerable in modern warfare

buddha said...

For all three armed force
100 brahmos missile is too low number ....After so many years production could have been speeded up considering the high intensity battle you are indicating that will take place in 2018 .
What it seems that Tejas Mk2 may not see the light if F 16 is introduced in IAF .
Inspite Tejas MKI as LIFT has good potentiality if synergy and common sense applied .
Can Weaponised hawk see the light of reality as amrmed force need them too.
That lady is not good choice for defence port folio
I feel any ex COAS or any ex general may work well.
Sir are Indian political class and armed force really ready to go for capturing POK in 2018 with the help of Multinational airland campaign
Your opinion sir

Anonymous said...

Thank you for you reply.

Sir i meant, how many divisions have we deployed against China in upper sector from Ladakh to Nepal border?

Also sir, pardon me if i mix up, but you have stated about Chinese air mobile strike forces for seizing and holding ALGs etc. You have amply given idea about how IA will operate on border and our advantages, but please explain what are possible actions/defenses against helicopter borne assault on ALGs and hinterland radar bases etc without disturbing our operations on frontlines?


Jyoti Sen said...

Anonymous said...

Thank you for your response.

Control I believe in the sense that they can increase US body bags. I agree if USAF attacked them, they stand no chance. Most of the drone attacks took place in agreement them and there was even a link on your site that the drones were taking off from pakiland itself.

The number of attacks have come down drastically according to:

Not sure how accurate they are. It shows that in 2004/5 they had 9000+ attacks. That went down to 2400 in 2015 and now around 400. I would say they have a handle on it and it means they have the space to reduce force levels, surely?

Also, Sir their FC is equipped with Tanks, mortars and 122/130 mm artillery (so their papers say).

Currently US has started using the drones again but only on the border region. Reading couple of articles, the drone fired the rounds whislst in Afghanistan airspace. DO they have the balls to shoot uncles drone down? If they do shoot it down, what will uncle do? Do you think Trump will spend the money & spill blood to invade them?


Vikram Guha said...

Prasun Da,

(1) This article from today's Economic Times edition states :

Rolls-Royce’s global strategic marketing director Ben Story, in a conversation with ET had recently said that there are “conversations” happening between the company and India on DEWs and Kalyani Group is working towards the development of DEWs.

(a) Is Rolls Royce helping DRDO develop DEWs? (b) Does Kalyani Group have the skills to develop DEWs or are they buying the tech from DRDO ?

(2) Some companies have purchased certain technologies from DRDO that they use to develop certain products. For example VEM Technologies purchased certain techs from DRDO to design ATGMs. On what basis does DRDO sell these technologies? Do they call for bids & then sell to the highest bidder ?

(3) Now that the US has decided to shift its Embassy to Jerusalem despite its very strong relations with Arab states, should India follow suit?

Thanks & Regards,


Anonymous said...

Dear Prasun, please let us have your views on this :



asd said...

Dear Prasun,

If I connect the dots, I again get a reason why uncle SAM is ready to strike Pakistan. Yesterday PAF chief decided to kill the American drones if intrude in its air space. What is your say?

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To ROBIN: The best source of information that you seek can be found in great detail here:

To JASSS GILL: Only 12 units. They will be upgraded in future. Right now they are quite effective in fulfilling their assigned taskings.

To BUDDHA: Indeed they are & everything is proceeding just as planned for thye showdown in 2018.

To VSK: As already stated several times before, there are 10 Mountain Divisions of the IA facing only 3 infantry/motorised brigades of the PLA. Only way to foil air-mobile raids by the PLA is to build up a network of gfapfiller radars & IRST sensors that are networkled with SHORADS networks since MR-SAMs & LR-SAMs are next-to-useless against helicopters that resort to terrain-masking flight-profiles for reasons of survivability.

To JYOTI SEN: What was ‘lost’ was a Super Heron-1, powered by diesel engines & these UAVs were procured last year. This is what India’s MoD said: “the UAV was on a “regular training mission” inside Indian territory when it “lost contact with the ground control due to some technical problem and crossed over the LAC (Line of Actual Control) in Sikkim sector.”

Loss of contact with GCS means 2 probabilities: 1) loss of line-of-sight data-linking, which happens only if there is electro-magnetic interference, i.e. electronic jamming by the PLA. 2) the Super Heron-1 being unresponsive to flight-profile commands from the GCS due to extreme icing (due to sub-zero temperatures) paralyzing the control surfaces of the UAV. That’s why such UAVs need to be equipped with de-icing systems.

To AGGARWAL: They can’t increase US body-bags for the simple reason that US military forces there are far smaller in number today than they were from 2009 till 2014. Drones at that time were taking off from & landing at Kandahar & Jalalabad in Afghanistan & Shamsi air base (from 2004 till 2012) in Pakistan. PA force-levels along the Durand Line CANNOT be decreased from 2015 levels simply because they are reqd to SEIZE & HOLD territory as I had explained yesterday. This means they have to dominate the land throughout FATA because several thousands of TTP cadres are now operating from Afghan soil & by no means have they been eliminated & armed clashes are taking place every week. Even in Swat Valley in KPK the PA has still not handed over control to the civilian administration. The FC does not have integral MBTs or howitzers & they’re all sourced from the PA’s inventory. Only APCs & mortars are the FC’s integral assets. If the PAF dares shoot down any US-opereated drone, then expect Pakistan to be overwhelmed with the kind of economic sanctions that will drive Pakistan back to the stone age. Why else do you think almost the entire Pakistani Federal Cabinet was holding delegation-level talks with the visiting US SECDEF?

Meanwhile, watch this report about 1,700 Yemeni military/civilian patients receiving medical treatment in India (all paid for by the UAE) & not a single patient being sent to Pakistan:

Prasun K. Sengupta said...

To VIKRAM GUHA: 1) The next thread will answer you WRT DEWs. R-R is exchanging data with the DRDO for high-power DEWs used on-board naval warships. 2) DRDO owns all IPRs for its designed products. VEM Technologies never designed any weapon. The ATGMs were all designed by DRDO. VEM only accesses the designs for converting them into engineered products. There’s thus no design work reqd to be done by VEM. 3) Deciding to do so does not meran it will happen tomorrow or after 6 months or after 2 years. It will take several years to physically re-locate the US Embassy to Jerusalem.

To ANAND: The use of the word ‘could’ alone makes that story highly speculative. That’s because HAL as the owner of all the industrial toolings reqd for undertaking is automatically reqd as prime industrial contractor to extend the product warranty of all such toolings. The IAF has already pre-paid HAL as part of the overall contract value.

To ASD & JOYDEEP GHOSH: LoLz! Since ‘Pakistan’ was built to serve as a fortress of Islam, then naturally it has every right to go into a severe tizzy (i.e. demonstrate globally that it is more Muslim than all other Muslims elsewhere!) about the US decision to relocate its Embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. And of course all the religiosity-inspired passions cultivated inside Pakistan since 1948 will play the decisive role in making the internal security situation a lot more volatile & flammable, which in turn will once again raise global fears about Pakistan’s nuclear WMDs falling into the wrong hands. This heightened perception alone, coupled with religiosity-inspired hostility against Israel, will provide the perfect setting for initiating multilateral military measures in 2018 that will vector Pakistan towards the inexorable path of reverting back to the stone age for a very very long period of time, mark my words. The Gods of Yore in the heavens above have already created the environment for this eventual end-objective & folks like POTUS are the mere tools/instruments being used by the Gods to shape the circumstances.